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Full text of "International checklist of cultivated Ilex"



United btates 
National 
Arboretum 
Contribution 
Number 6 



niernaii 



HI 



wli 



Thunberg ex J.A. Murray 




Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices 



Abstract 

Dudley, T.R., and G.K. Eisenbeiss. 1992. International Checklist of 
Cultivated Ilex: Part 2, Ilex crenata Thunberg ex J. A. Murray. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, U.S. National Arboretum Contribution 
No. 6, 91 pp. 

Ilex crenata is one of the most important landscape and nursery plants in 
the United States. This comprehensive international checklist is the first 
publication to document all of the cultivars and wild-origin variants of 
Ilex crenata. Introductory sections contain the following: a detailed 
morphological description of the species; an evaluation of its current 
status; cultural, nomenclatural, and taxonomic histories; an explanation of 
the format; and the technical bases for validation of cultivar names in 
accordance with the "International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated 
Plants — 1980." The section entitled "Alphabetical List of Documented 
Epithets" provides full documentation for 436 garden and wild-origin 
germplasm entities (170 are legitimate, 266 are illegitimate or 
controversial), including origins, sources, descriptions, histories, 
international registrations, original and other pertinent references, and 
synonyms. Eighteen new cultivar names are validly published for the first 
time, and a simple list of 1 12 illegitimate names (which have no 
documentation previously discovered) is provided. This publication is 
particularly useful for botanical historians, systematists and 
nomenclaturalists, plant experts of various trades, and consumers. 

Keywords: Cultivar names, documentation, illegitimate, international 
registration, Japanese holly, legitimate, nomenclature, synonyms, 
taxonomy, validation. 

Names in the trade are used in this publication solely for the purpose of 
providing specific information. Mention of a name does not constitute a 
guarantee or warranty of the product by the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture or an endorsement by the Department over other products not 
mentioned. 

Copies of this publication may be purchased from the National Technical 
Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 

ARS has no additional copies for'free distribution. 



United States 
Department of 
Agriculture 

Agricultural 

Research 

Service 

United States 
National 
Arboretum 
Contribution 
Number 6 



International 
Checklist of 
Cultivated Ilex 

Part 2, Ilex crenata 

Thunberg ex J.A. Murray 

T.R. Dudley and G.K. Eisenbeiss 



March 1992 



Acknowledgments 

This checklist series on cultivated Ilex is a direct outgrowth of the 
"Preliminary Holly Check List," Holly Society of America Bulletin 
No. 6, prepared by Wister et al. (1953). This present work utilized many 
references that were cited in that publication. Notable among many 
additional sources of information were the Nursery and Seed Trade 
Catalog Collection of the National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, 
Maryland, and international registrations by the Holly Society of America, 
Inc. Other sources were massive numbers of volumes of precursor and 
current horticultural and botanical literature, and published and 
unpublished collections lists obtained from arboreta, botanic gardens, and 
private gardens. The Holly Society of America, Inc., is to be credited for 
having published many of these lists. 

The task at hand was to evaluate these materials through study and 
analysis of accumulated, previously unpublished data, and living plants 
and herbarium specimens. Accomplishment of the task was greatly 
enhanced by the cooperation of many other individuals investigating Ilex; 
including Susyn Andrews of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England: 
Fred Galle, Hamilton, Georgia; and Tom Dodd Nurseries, Semmes, 
Alabama. 

We also acknowledge the contributions of the following from the U.S. 
National Arboretum: H.M. Cathey, former director; J.L. Creech, former 
director; the late F. deVos, former assistant director; the late H.T. Skinner, 
former director; F.S. Santamour Jr., research geneticist; A.M. Townsend, 
research leader; and especially, the late W.F. Kosar, former research 
horticulturist, who started Ilex research at the National Arboretum. 

Fred Galle, well-known author and horticultural consultant, made 
significant contributions from his personal observations of living plants 
and personal contact with many originators and growers. 

The cover illustration of Ilex crenata was provided by Judith Ho of the 
National Agricultural Library, Special Collections. The illustration was 
taken from Vol. 2, "Iconographie Des Essences Forestieres Du Japon," 
written by Homi Shirasawa and published in 1900. 



i\ 



Contents 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Description and Status of Ilex crenata 3 

Cultural History 6 

Nomenclatural History 9 

Format 1 1 

Abbreviations 15 

References Cited 17 

Alphabetical List of Documented Epithets 

of Cultivated Ilex crenata 19 

Appendix A. List of New Cultivar Names 

of/, crenata 87 

Appendix B. List of Newly Legitimized Cultivar Names 

of/, crenata 88 

Appendix C. List of Doubtful Cultivar Names 

of/, crenata 89 



International Checklist of Cultivated Ilex 

Part 2, Ilex crenata Thunberg ex J.A. Murray 

T.R. Dudley and G.K. Eisenbeiss 

Introduction 

In 1953, the Holly Society of America, Inc., published Bulletin No. 6, 
"Preliminary Holly Check List," by Wister et al. At that time it was the 
most comprehensive checklist of cultivated Ilex, although the authors 
were aware that revision and updating would be necessary. In 1958, the 
Society was appointed the "International Registration Authority" for 
cultivar names in the genus Ilex. In accordance with its mandate to 
produce new and updated checklists and registers, the Society, with the 
cooperation of the U.S. National Arboretum, began compiling the 
"International Checklist of Cultivated Ilex." When completed in its 
entirety of several parts, the checklist will include all names in cultivated 
Ilex, with explanations of their legitimacy and synonymy, and with 
descriptions, sex determinations, origins, sources, and occasionally, 
hardiness ratings. "Part 1, Ilex opaca" has already been published 
(Eisenbeiss and Dudley 1973). 

The present publication, part 2, presents 548 entries for Ilex crenata. The 
cultivars originally came from many different areas of the world, and 
some are described in the English language for the first time. Although 
this checklist is primarily based on literature resources, authentic living 
and herbarium materials were examined extensively when available. 

The nomenclature in part 2 agrees with the "International Code of 
Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants — 1980" (Brickell et al. 1980), also 
known as the "Cultivated Code," and with the "International Code of 
Botanical Nomenclature" (Greuter et al. 1988). Common names have been 
excluded to avoid nomenclatural confusion. The need for common names 
is questionable when cultivar names are available. There are no accepted 
national or international rules, guidelines, or codes governing origin, 
precedence, formulation or usage of common or colloquial names in 
horticultural plants. 



Research botanist and horticulturist, respectively, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. National Arboretum, 3501 New York Avenue, NE., 
Washington, DC 20002. 



Part 2 of the "International Checklist of Cultivated Ilex" provides the 
nursery industry, horticulturists, botanists, students, and professional and 
amateur gardeners with the names, documentation, and correct 
nomenclatural status of selected clones and wild-origin botanical taxa of 
Ilex crenata. 

For a more detailed history of the concepts, implementation, and 
utilization of the international checklist, refer to the preface and 
introduction of the "International Checklist of Cultivated Ilex: Part 1, 
Ilex opaca" (Eisenbeiss and Dudley 1973). 

We encourage users to communicate errors or omissions to the attention 
of Holly Society of America, Inc., Registration Committee, Mr. G.K. 
Eisenbeiss, U.S. National Arboretum, 3501 New York Avenue, NE., 
Washington, DC 20002. 



Description and Status of Ilex crenata 

Ilex crenata Thunberg ex J.A. Murray was named by Carl Peter Thunberg 
(1743-1828), a Swedish physician who worked for the Dutch East India 
Co. in Japan from 1776-1777, in his "Flora Japonica: Sistens Plantas 
Insularum Japonicarum," p. 78. 1784. J.A. Murray (1784), however, 
while using Thunberg 's manuscripts was the first authority to publish 
Thunberg 's species name. Murray's "Systema Vegetabilium," edition 
14 of 1784, was published in May or June and therefore has priority over 
Thunberg's "Flora Japonica," which was published in August of 1784. 
Thunberg and Murray were the first botanists from the Western World to 
name and describe many Japanese plants that were collected by Thunberg 
and that are widely cultivated today, including /. crenata, I. Integra, and 
/. latifolia. 

Thunberg's original Latin description of/, crenata from his "Flora 
Japonica" follows: 

/. foli is ovatis crenatis ,pedunculahs rameis spar sis subtrifloris. 
Caulis fruticosus erectus. Rami et ramuli subtretes, nodulosis 
patuli. Folia sparsa petiolata, ovata obtusa, crenata margine 
reflexo, supra viridia, subtus pallida, unguicularia. Petioli 
brevissima. Flores sparsi in ramulis, pedunculati. Pedunculi 
simplices, bifida et trifida, cernui, vix unguiculares pedicel I is 
brevissimis. 

Our English translation (brackets [ ] in the English translation indicate 
authors' clarifications of the Latin): 

Leaves ovate-crenate, peduncles and branches sparsely 
subtriflorous, inflorescence having 3 flowers more or less 
together. Stems shrubby, erect. Branches and branchlets 
subterete [nearly round], nodulose [nodes small], spreading. 
Leaves sparse, few [widely distant], petiolate, ovate, obtuse, 
with reflexed [revolute] , crenate margins, upper surfaces green, 
lower surfaces paler, unguiculate [meaning "clawed," in this 
case, abruptly narrowing into the petiole]. Petiole very short. 
Flowers sparse and pedunculate on branchlets. Peduncles 
[actually inflorescences] simple, 2-3 forked [with 2-3 branches 
= pedicels], nodding, scarcely pedicellate, pedicels very short. 



A more detailed description that offers a wider range of character options 
and correlations based on study of a great many living plants, herbarium 
specimens, and references follows. 

Ilex crenata: dense, evergreen, multiple-branched shrub or small tree to 
6 m; habit very variable from fastigiate, narrowly conical to low 
spreading, or low, compact dwarf shrub; branchlets densely pubescent, 
often with foliage apically crowded. Buds broad-conical or poorly 
developed with loose scales. Leaves alternate, simple, coriaceous to thin- 
coriaceous, glabrous, glossy or dull, mostly dark green to olive-green 
above, rarely variegated, plicate and rugulose, dull and punctate below; 
obovate, to ovate, or oblong-elliptic, rarely ovate or orbicular, (0.3-) 1.5-4 
(-5) cm long, (0.3-) 0.5-2 (-3) cm wide; margins mostly flat or 
occasionally convex-bullate and wide revolute; bases obtuse, acute, or 
cuneate; apices obtuse-rounded to subacute, mucronulate primarily; 
margins crenate or serrate with (2-) 6-10 pairs of usually blunt, appressed 
teeth, sometimes subentire; midveins often puberulent above, 2-3 pairs of 
lateral veins; stipules 0.5-1 mm long; petioles persistent, subulate, (1-) 2-3 
(-5) mm long, canaliculate, and puberulent. Male inflorescences cymose or 
subumbellate, 1-7 flowered, usually 3, solitary and axillary on current 
year's branchlets or, rarely, pseudofasciculate on second-year wood; 
peduncles (3-) 4-8 (-10) mm long, bearing white, 4-merous, rotate flowers, 
(3-) 4-6 mm in diameter; corolla lobes broadly elliptic, 2-3 mm long, often 
ascending then spreading; stamens 1-2 mm long; pistillodes conical, 
somewhat apiculate; calyces 1.5-2 mm diameter, glabrous, with broad- 
deltoid, erose lobes. Female inflorescences solitary or rarely 2-3-flowered, 
cymose, axillary on current year's branchlets; pedicels (1-) 4-6 mm long, 
clavate, ridged, with 1-2 submedial prophylls; corollas same as in males 
except lobes ovate, 3-4 mm long; staminodes 1.5-2 mm long; ovaries 
ovoid-conical, 1.5-2.5 mm long with evident styles and discoid, 4-lobed 
stigmas; calyces 2-3 mm diameter with obtuse-rounded lobes. Fruit 
globose, black or very rarely yellow-green, 5-8 (-12) mm diameter; 
calyces explanate, persistent, 3-3.5 mm diameter; stigmas minute, thinly 
discoid, 1-1.5 mm diameter, distinctly 4-lobed; pyrenes (2-) 4-5 (-16), 
usually 4, oblong-ellipsoid, 5-6 mm long, 3-3.5 mm wide, smooth, and 
esculcate. 

This species is native to Japan, Korea, People's Republic of China, 
Sakhalin, Kuril Islands, Taiwan, the Philippines, and the Himalayas and is 
extraordinarily polymorphic with respect to plant habit, leaf size, leaf 
shape and texture, marginal crenations, and variegation. Numerous wild- 
occurring botanical varieties and forms have been discovered and named, 
as have been hundreds of cultivars. 



Ilex crenata grows in the wild from sea level to 1000 m in Honshu and 
Kyushu, Japan, and shows tremendous variability within local 
populations. In Hokkaido, Japan, /. crenata is found as a low-growing 
shrub in deep forests at elevations below the snowline. At the highest 
elevations, plants are stunted because of climate and not necessarily 
because of genetic influences. Convex-leaved forms appear to be less 
common in the wild than other leaf variations. Plants with distinct leaf 
types and habits of growth are not restricted as colonies but occur 
randomly within local populations. Seedling populations from cultivated 
selections also exhibit these characteristics. 

The botanical classification of/, crenata as a species is reasonably clear. 
However, there are botanical classification problems in some closely 
related elements. For example, two or more botanical names may have 
been given to the same plant. Ilex maximowicziana var. kanehirae 
(Yamamoto) Yamazaki and /. crenata var. mutchagara (Makino) Hara 
apply to the same plant, which had been known previously as 
/. mutchagara Makino. Although this taxon has been studied in Japan, it 
has received minimal attention in its other natural locations, such as the 
Ryukyu Islands. In this checklist /. maximowicziana var. kanehirae is 
accepted. Another problem concerns the taxonomy and nomenclature of 
/. crenata var. thomsonii (Hooker f.) Loesener, which was originally 
described as /. thomsonii Hooker f. This taxon, a native of the Bengal 
Himalayas and Sikkim, has not received adequate study in the wild, and 
there are very few herbarium specimens. It is accepted in this checklist as 
/. crenata var. thomsonii. Some of the numerous infraspecific taxa 
described from the wild have undergone many rank changes from distinct 
species to formae, and then to cultivars; in some cases, rank changes have 
proceeded in the opposite direction. 

In this work, numerous questions and long-standing problems of botanical 
and cultivar synonymy have been resolved. While some problems remain 
and may never be solved, full documentation is always presented. 



Cultural History 

Carl Maximowicz (1827-1891) first introduced /. crenata into the Western 
World in 1864, bringing it from Japan to the Czar's garden in St. 
Petersburg (Leningrad), Russia. Although Maximowicz's (1881) own 
writings were not clear on the subject of his introductions, Bretschneider 
(1898) credited Maximowicz with the introduction of/, crenata into the 
West. From this initial introduction into Russia, /. crenata became 
available to other European countries, probably initially to France. Since 
/. crenata is not well adapted in European climates, only a few European 
selections have been identified and named. For this reason, the species has 
never gained the popularity in Europe that it has in the United States. 
While introduction into the West is dated at 1 864, /. crenata was 
cultivated in Japan at much earlier dates. Maximowicz (1881) observed 
and made collections from plants in cultivation in Japan but made no 
mention of the extent of local use. 

In the Western World there has been a distinct neglect of examining and 
citing early Japanese horticultural art and literature. Ancient Japanese 
literature relating to the cultivation and selection of Ilex exists but is 
scarcely known. Kato (1975) listed seven early Japanese references, dated 
between 1652 and 1847, that mention or illustrate Ilex selections, 
including /. crenata. Two references are of considerable interest since 
facsimiles with annotations have been published. Iinuma (1832) illustrated 
four variegated selections of/, crenata. In another publication, Kinata 
(1813) illustrated six variegated selections. None of the annotations can be 
interpreted with cultivar names except 'NUMMULARIA', which was 
applied by Kitamura (1976) (see Iinuma 1832) in his annotation of an 
illustration in Iinuma. The name 'NUMMULARIA' did not appear in the 
original script associated with the illustration. Since many plants of 
Japanese origin are now widely grown in the United States and other 
countries, it would be desirable and enlightening if more ancient 
gardening literature from Eastern Asia were published in facsimile and the 
facsimile annotated and translated. 

Ilex crenata has been introduced from Japan many times since 1864 as 
seeds and plants from the wild and from cultivation. Some of the early 
known introductions into the United States directly from Japan were made 
for the Arnold Arboretum by C.S. Sargent in 1898 and by E.H. Wilson in 
1900. Numerous private, commercial, and government collections 
continue to this day. During the 1950's and 1960's, J. L. Creech (former 
Director of the U.S. National Arboretum) made numerous collections from 
the wild in Japan for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Plants 
from these collections were widely distributed from the USDA's Plant 
Introduction Station (now known as the National Plant Germplasm 



Quarantine Laboratory), Glenn Dale, Maryland, and the U.S. National 
Arboretum, Washington, DC. 

Japan has been the primary source of germplasm introduction. It is 
unfortunate that introductions from other areas of the natural range of 
/. crenata have been essentially neglected. Wild-origin material from 
Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Korea, and the People's Republic of China could 
possibly have increased hardiness and increased resistance to 
environmental stresses. New germplasm has been recently introduced 
(1985) from the Republic of Korea and is now being evaluated in the 
United States and Canada. 

In the 1930's, a successful effort of promotion and distribution by the 
Arnold Arboretum resulted in the widespread production and sales of 
/. crenata by the American nursery trade. By the late 1930's a great 
expansion of single-family suburban dwellings had begun in the United 
States; concomitantly, affluence and interest in horticulture and 
landscaping increased, resulting in an equally expanding nursery industry. 
Foundation plantings and hedges became fashionable, for which /. crenata 
is eminently suitable. The nursery industry found /. crenata and its many 
cultivars easy to propagate, and adaptable and useful as landscape plants. 
Plants may reach saleable size in 2-3 years, and because they grow slowly, 
they will remain saleable and not become overgrown for 1-2 years. 
Transplanting is easy, and the species is tolerant of full sun or shade, 
exposed sites, and a wide range of soil conditions. It is also highly tolerant 
of salt and air pollution. As container production became popular in the 
nursery industry, /. crenata was found to be well adapted to this 
production technique. It is now thought that /. crenata is the leading 
broad-leaved evergreen grown by the U.S. nursery industry in both 
quantities produced and dollar volume. At this time, most plants are 
container grown. With the national housing boom, market demand 
continues to be high; and higher prices can be obtained for the evergreen 
/. crenata than for many deciduous shrubs. 

This species is grown to a limited extent in western Europe and on the 
west coast of the United States, but it is most adaptable from 
Massachusetts to the Middle Atlantic and Southeastern States west to 
Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Texas. The cold hardiness range is generally 
to 10°F, or USDA zone 7 of the "Plant Hardiness Zone Map" (U.S. 
Department of Agriculture 1965), but can extend to -20°F, or USDA zones 
6 and 5, for some cultivars. 

The major cultural problem of/, crenata is its susceptibility to spider 
mites. Damage from spider mites is more serious in the southern region of 
its growing range, particularly in the Deep South. Ilex vomitoria, a native 



U.S. species, is sometimes preferred in the Deep South over/, crenata 
because it is less susceptible to spider mites. 

Before the 1930's only a few selections (= cultivars) of/, crenata were 
known. Now more than 500 cultivars have been named and introduced. 
Most cultivars have been obtained as seedling selections by the nursery 
industry, but some have been from mutation propagations. Only a few 
have been selected directly from wild habitats. This selection process 
differs from that of/, opaca, whose cultivars were mostly discovered 
originally as wild-occurring plants and were subsequently named, 
propagated, and distributed. 

Nursery professionals have discovered that seedling populations of 
/. crenata vary extensively in size and shape of leaves, in growth habits, 
and in growth rates. Such variations have led to choosing selections with 
improved landscape utility and nursery productivity. Most cultivars in 
commerce today represent the finest selections from among literally 
hundreds of thousands of seedlings. By far, 'CONVEXA' has been the 
most popular cultivar, and as a seed parent, it has yielded progeny with an 
outstanding array of shapes and textures. A limited number of dwarf, 
small-leaved, and variegated clones have arisen as chance mutations. 

Because of its wide use and ease of culture (including ease of 
propagation), /. crenata is one of the most popular test plants for research 
on the production of container-grown nursery crops. From this research, 
more is known about the response of/, crenata to soil mixes, mineral 
nutrition, and pesticides than for any other container-grown nursery crop 
in the United States. 

Despite the popularity of /. crenata as a landscape plant, the nongardening 
public does not often recognize it as a holly. It is generally seen as a shrub 
having small, nonspiny leaves and small black fruits. In contrast, holly is 
traditionally envisioned in western culture as a tree or shrub that has spiny 
leaves and red fruit. Plant hybridizers have attempted to develop an 
/. crenata with red fruit. Such fruit would greatly enhance the public 
image and broaden the versatility of this species. Many attempts have been 
made and some interspecific hybrid combinations have been achieved 
between /. crenata and red-fruited species of Ilex; but to date, satisfactory 
red-fruited hybrids have not been produced. 



Nomenclatural History 

The cultivar and botanical taxa enumerations reflect the many problems of 
correctly identifying cultivars, applying the legitimate names to the correct 
plant, sorting cultivars from botanical taxa, and determining synonymy. 

The genus Ilex has been in cultivation for centuries, and now more than 
125 species are cultivated. These species are, in turn, represented by 
several thousand named cultivars. The genus also has many types of 
cultivar nomenclature complexities and confusions. Inadequate 
descriptions, poor documentation, and inappropriate, incorrect or unstable 
cultivar names are all major causes of nomenclatural, taxonomic, and 
identification instabilities and inaccuracies. The longer the confusions 
exist (while the named cultivars continue to be cultivated and the number 
of named cultivars proliferate) the more difficult the problems of 
nomenclature and identification become. 

Formal International Registration of new cultivar names is promoted by 
the Commission for Horticultural Nomenclature and Registration of the 
International Society for Horticultural Science. International Registration 
provides by far the best means for ensuring the adequacy and accuracy of 
descriptions, the legitimacy of cultivar names, and the accessibility of 
accurate documentation. The Council of the International Society for 
Horticultural Science appoints International Registration Authorities for 
many cultivated plant genera. These authorities are able to respond to 
questions concerning the formulation and documentation of new cultivar 
names. The Holly Society of America, Inc., by appointment as the 
authority for cultivated Ilex and through its appointed registration 
committee and registrar, has been registering Ilex cultivars since 1958. 
This registration system, while nonstatutory, is international in scope; and 
all potential selectors, namers, and introducers of new cultivars are 
strongly urged to use this system by contacting the International Registrar 
for cultivar names in the genus Ilex: G.K. Eisenbeiss, U.S. National 
Arboretum, 3501 New York Avenue, NE., Washington, DC 20002. 

While analyzing the literature published prior to the "International Code 
of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants — 1953" (Stearn et al. 1953), we 
found it difficult to separate some botanical ranks, especial lyformae, from 
cultivated varieties (cultivars). The sorting of these categories was one of 
our objectives, since a suitable nomenclature for cultivated varieties, 
distinct from botanical ranks, was not available before 1953. The 
'international Code of Botanical Nomenclature" (Greuteret al. 1988 and 
earlier editions) did not address the nomenclature of cultivated plants. 
While the term "cultivated variety" was widely understood for many 
years, it was not directly attached to a plant name. Sometimes the term 



"Hort." or "Hortur." was applied as an author citation to mean "of garden 
origin" or "of gardeners," e.g., I.fortunei Hort. In these cases, the 
meanings were clear regardless of the rank indicated or the lack of a rank. 
The names of plants we now recognize as cultivars were sometimes 
originally published as f. (botanical forma) or as trinomials without any 
rank indicated. Often cultivated varieties were designated as "var.," which 
is the identical abbreviation to botanical varietas, implying that cultivated 
varieties have the same nomenclatural significance and weight as 
botanical varieties. Botanical varieties (vars.) and cultivated varieties (now 
cultivars or cvs.) are entirely different in concept and origin and cannot be 
used interchangeably. 

A botanical variety is an infraspecific botanical entity or category referring 
to a population of individuals occurring in the wild with certain characters 
differing in a minor way from other plants of their species. A horticultural 
or cultivated variety (cultivar) refers strictly to a plant (in the case of Ilex, 
a single, named clone in cultivation) that has generally originated in 
cultivation. Names of plants that were prior to 1953 and were clearly 
considered to be cultivated varieties by their authors are now recognized 
as cultivar names. For these names, sometimes botanical ranks were 
clearly cited in references. When necessary to clarify and justify rank 
changes, the ranks are cited and the reasons for their change are given in 
detail. 



10 



Format 

The format of this checklist is similar to but deviates somewhat from that 
of the /. opaca checklist (Eisenbeiss and Dudley 1973). References to 
documented nomenclature of infraspecific botanical taxa, which are more 
numerous within /. crenata than within /. opaca, have been added. These 
references are cited first, the dates indicating the first publication of the 
names; but the publication dates may not represent the dates the plants 
were introduced into cultivation. The objective is to establish the first use 
of the basionym. Also, the reasons for names being regarded as 
illegitimate are usually stated. However, illegitimacy because the name 
lacks a plant description or is in Latin form (for those names published on 
or after January 1, 1959) or because of names in synonymy is so frequent 
that these causes are not always stated. Names that are illegitimate because 
of one of these causes are easily recognized by their publication date. 

A cultivar can have only one legitimate name, and a legitimate name can 
apply to only one cultivar (clone). 

Information for each name entry is given according to the following 
format: 

• All names, regardless of rank, are enumerated in alphabetical order. 

• Homonyms are listed in alphabetical order by the personal name of 
the publishing authority or by the name of the nursery. 

• The earliest published reference found for a name is given first and 
placed in parentheses. Within the parentheses, those references 
lacking a plant description are identified. 

• Additional references are included when they provide important 
supplemental information. 

• Information from included references is preceded by a dash after the 
reference. Information and comments derived from the authors of 
this checklist and previously unpublished sources is contained in 
brackets or stands alone in separate sentences. 

• Descriptive information is presented in the following order: habit, 
leaf characters, and fruit characters, and miscellaneous data such as 
origin and hardiness. When available, the sources, discoverers, 
selectors, and introducers, with pertinent dates, are also included. 



11 



• The status of all names is indicated by the following type styles: 

- Legitimate cultivar names are shown in boldface capitals, e.g., 
ALLEN SEAY. 

- Illegitimate cultivar names are shown in regular face capitals, e.g., 
ALBO-MARGINATA. 

- Valid botanical names are shown in boldface italics, e.g., var. 
paludosa. 

- Invalid botanical names are shown in regular face italics, e.g., var. 
aureo-variegata. 

• When synonyms are listed, they are preceded by an equal sign (=) 
and then by the legitimate name if there is one. Synonyms that are 
illegitimate are listed in alphabetical order. Dubious, suspect, and 
unconfirmed synonyms are preceded by a question mark. Some 
synonyms occur as previously unpublished names and do not have 
entries of their own in the Alphabetical List of Documented 
Epithets. These are listed in Appendix C. 

• Duplicate cultivar names (later homonyms) that have been proposed 
for different clones (selections) are listed as separate entries. 
Typically, the earliest published use of a name has priority, e.g., 
FASTIGIATA of S.-y. Hu (1970) has priority over FASTIGIATA 
of Sugimoto (1972). Occasionally, a question mark (?) precedes a 
name in the list of synonyms that follow the equal sign (=) at the end 
of an entry. The question mark (?) indicates that the name 
immediately following is a synonym for which there is not enough 
evidence to positively and irrevocably equate with the listed name. 
However, for the most part, the authors have deduced that the name 
following a question mark is a likely synonym. 

• Separate entries are made for names that have been published at 
more than one botanical and cultivar rank. Such an entry system is of 
particular importance if any of these botanical ranks have been used 
for plants in cultivation. 

• Cultivar names noted as new are published with a description and 
accordingly are made legitimate in this work for the first time. These 
names are summarized in Appendix A. 

• Names previously published but made legitimate here for the first 
time by adding a description or reformulating the name are noted in 
the text and summarized in Appendix B. 

• Appendix C is a list of dubious and illegitimate names previously 
unpublished but known to exist. The purpose of publishing these 



12 



illegitimate names is to prevent their application to new and different 
plants. Some of these names could be made legitimate if adequate 
descriptions could be found and published or if originators of these 
names or cultivars communicated with the International Registrar for 
the genus Ilex. 

Author citations to cultivar names are uncommon in the literature and are 
not addressed by any edition of the "Cultivated Code." This checklist 
includes such citations when duplicate names (homonyms) are synonyms 
representing different plants, e.g., see BUXIFOLIA entries in this 
checklist. The style of author citations used here is to precede the name of 
the author or other source with the word "of." This citation may be a 
personal name or an organization or business, such as a nursery. 

Many names originally published at botanical rank have been reduced to 
cultivar rank, e.g., /. nummularia Franchet & Savatier = NUMMULARIA, 
and /. crenata var. luteo-vahegata Regel = LUTEO-VARIEGATA. Some 
of these changes originated from the taxonomic and nomenclatural 
judgment of the authors of this checklist and some from other cited 
sources. 

Several cultivars, e.g., LATIFOLIA, MICROPHYLLA, and 
ROTUNDIFOLIA are of major commercial importance, but their names 
are not legitimate, since conflicts and inadequacies are found in their 
descriptions and synonymy. Cultivar names cannot be legitimized without 
accurate reference to original or authentic plants. There are cases when the 
original and type plant (clonotype) or authentic plants propagated from the 
clonotype could not be determined. Occasionally it is questionable whether 
there really ever was a single original or authentic plant. In such cases the 
lack of published data prevents these names from becoming legitimate. In 
this checklist the legitimacy of each name was determined on a case-by- 
case basis. There are hundreds of commercially available clones (cultivars) 
that are sold under illegitimate names. 

The use of group names is not new in Ilex. Loudon (1838) used group 
names for yellow- and white-blotched variegated leaf "forms" of 
/. aquifolium, which he called subvarieties. Group names were also used in 
the /. opaca cultivar checklist. Most group names used for Ilex crenata are 
published here for the first time. They are always distinguished by the word 
"Group" and are enclosed in parentheses to keep them clearly distinct from 
cultivar names, e.g., (Watanabeana Group). While having no taxonomic 
status, group names are convenient for grouping some cultivars. Group 
names used in this checklist are not to be confused with cultivar classes. 
The International Registration Authority and Registrar for cultivated Ilex 
does not recognize any cultivar classes. 



13 



In the cultivar enumerations, reference is frequently made to T. Loesener, 
Monog. Aquif., Pt. 1, 1901. Since the full citation for this reference is so 
long, it is given only one time, here, in full — T. Loesener, 1901. 
Monographia Aquifolicearum, Pt. 1 . Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae 
Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum 78:1-567. 



14 



Abbreviations 

Abbreviations and symbols used in enumerations of cultivars. 

access. - accession 

alt. - altitude 

advert. - advertisement 

Amer. - America, American 

Arb. - arboretum 

approx. - approximately 

ARS - Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture 

bot. - botanical 

Bui. - bulletin 

°C - degrees Celsius 

cat. - catalog, catalogue 

cf. - compare, confer 

cm - centimeter or centimeters 

coll. - collected, collection 

cult. - cultivated, cultivation 

cv. (cvs.) - cultivar (cultivars) 

descr. - description, descriptions, described 

diam. - diameter 

discov. - discovered, discovery 

distrib. - distributed, distribution 

ed. - edition, edited, editor 

e.g. - for example 

elev. - elevation 

et al. - and others 

f. - forma , formae 

°F - degrees Fahrenheit 

ft - foot, feet 

F - first filial generation 

F 2 - second filial generation 

fr. - fruit, fruits 

gdn. (gdns.) - garden (gardens) 

grad. nov. - gradus novus (change to another category without change of 

the combination itself; abbreviation taken from A. Render's usage in 

1949). 
handb. - handbook, handbuch 
hort. - horticulture, horticultural (of garden origin) 
idem - same author as immediately cited above 
ibid. - in the same place 
intern. - international 
introd. - introduced, introduction 
/. - Ilex 



15 



Let. - letter as in Holly Letter 

If. (lvs.) - leaf (leaves) 

m - meters 

mm - millimeters 

NA - U.S. National Arboretum, 3501 New York Avenue NE., 

Washington, DC 20002 

NA # - U.S. National Arboretum accession number 

no. - number, numeral 

Nurs. (nurs.) - nursery (nurseries) 

orig. - originated, origin 

p. (pp.) - page (pages) 

pat. - patent as in plant patent 

PI - U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Introduction Accession 

pit. (pits.) - plant (plants) 

poll. - pollinated, pollinate 

Proc. - Proceedings 

propag. - propagators, propagation 

pt. - part 

rec. - received 

ref. (refs.) - reference (references) 

reg. - registration 

rev. - revised, revision 

sdlg. (sdlgs.) - seedling (seedlings) 

sel. - selected, selection, selections 

Soc. - Society 

sp. - spring 

sta. - station 

subsp. - botanical rank of subspecies 

syn. (syns.) - synonym (synonyms), synonymy 

unkn. - unknown 

U.S. - United States of America 

USDA - U.S. Department of Agriculture 

var. (vars.) - variety, varieties, varietas, varietates 

vs. - versus, contrasted with, against 

'...'- single quotation marks used only to designate cultivar names 

"..." - direct quotation 

" - inch or inches 

X - multiplication sign, signifying hybridity 



16 



References Cited 

1. Bretschneider, E. 1898. History of European botanical discoveries in 
China 1:603-604. 

2. Brickell, C, E.G. Voss, A.F. Kelly, F. Schneider, and R.H. Richens 
(eds.). 1980. International code of nomenclature for cultivated 
plants — 1980. [Also called the "Cultivated Code."] Formulated and 
adopted by the International Commission for the nomenclature for 
cultivated plants of the I.U.B.S. Regnum Vegetabile 104:1-32. 

3. Eisenbeiss, G.K., and T.R. Dudley. 1973. International checklist of 
cultivated Ilex, part 1, Ilex opaca. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Agricultural Research Service, National Arboretum Contribution 
No. 3, 85 pp. 

4. Greuter, W., H.M. Burdet, W.G. Chaloner et al. 1988. International 
code of botanical nomenclature. [Also called the "Botanical Code."] 
Adopted by the Fourteenth International Botanical Congress, Berlin, 
August 1987. Regnum Vegetabile 1 18:i-xiv, 1-328. 

5. Iinuma, Y. 1832. Somoku-dzusetsu [Iconography of plants indigenous 
to, cultivated in, or introduced into Nippon]. 10 volumes in 2 parts. 
Facsimile (1976) with reprint including indices and Latin name 
annotations by S. Kitamura. 

6. Kato, K. 1975. Early history of Japanese holly in Japan. Holly Society 
of America Holly Letter 52:4-5. 

7. Kinata. 1813. Somoku kihin kagami [Illustrated manual of rare 
plants]. This 1813 edition was compiled from a 17th century 
manuscript. Facsimile (1976) with reprint including indices and Latin 
name annotations. 

8. Loudon, J.C. 1838. Arboretum et fruticetum Britannicum 2:506. 

9. Maximowicz, C. 1881. Coriaria, Ilice et Monochasmate, hujusque 
generibus proxime affinibus Bungea et Cymbaria. Memoires 
L'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de. St.-Peterbourg. 7 ser. 
22(3):21,33. 

10. Murray, J.A. 1784. Systema vegetabilium, edition 14. 1004 pp. 
Gottingae. 

11. Rehder, A. 1949. Bibliography of cultivated trees and shrubs. 825 pp. 
The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Jamaica Plain. 

12. Steam, W.T., J.S.L. Gilmour, and W.H. Camp (eds.). 1953. 
International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants — 1953. 
Formulated and adopted by the committee for the nomenclature of 
cultivated plants at the International Botanical Congress, Stockholm 
1950, and the committee on nomenclature and registration at the 
International Horticultural Conference, London 1952, 1-22. Royal 
Horticultural Society. 



17 



13. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1965. Plant hardiness zone map. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 
Miscellaneous Publication No. 814 (revised). 

14. Wister, J.C., R.B. Clark, and C.H. Conners. 1953. Preliminary holly 
checklist. Holly Society of America, Inc., Bulletin No. 6:1-56. 



18 



Alphabetical List of Documented Epithets of 
Cultivated Ilex crenata 

ALBO-MARGINATA (J. Conder, Landscape Gardening in Japan, 2d ed. 
p. 112. 1912, without descr., as albo-marginata with the Romanji 
common name "Shiro-kukurin-tsuge"). (Variegated Group). Illegitimate, 
since the name /. aquifolium ALBO-MARGINATA has priority. = 
SNOWFLAKE, SHIROFUKURIN. 

ALBO-MARGINATA (M. Rolland, Jour. New York Bot. Gdn. 16(6):222. 
1966, without descr.). Probably not the same as ALBO-MARGINATA 
of Conder. (Variegated Group). Illegitimate, since the name 
/. aquifolium ALBO-MARGINATA has priority. 

ALLEN SEAY (Greenbrier Farms, Chesapeake, Virginia, cat. p. 38. 1971- 
72) - upright; lvs. flat, similar to those of MICROPHYLLA. Ibid., cat. 
p. 39. 1973 - pyramidal; lvs. darkest green winter color of all Bennett 
Hybrids, very similar to but not as round as leaves of ROTUNDIFOLIA; 
male; Greenbrier Control No. 4909; sel. and introd. on or before 1970 by 
Greenbrier Farms. (Bennett Hybrid Group). = NIGRA. 

ANGELICA (Angelica Nurs., Mohnton, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 31. fall 
1968-sp. 1969) - low, spreading; lvs. narrow; very hardy. Ibid., 
Kennedy ville, Maryland, cat. p. 24. fall 1971-sp. 1972 - lvs. long; new 
sel. Ibid., cat. p. 49. fall 1975-sp. 1976 - new sel. so popular it was sold 
out when first introd. Illegitimate, since the name /. opaca ANGELICA, 
published in 1956, has priority. 

ANGYO New name. Erected to replace the name KIIRO-FUKURIN. 
Branches spreading, height about equal to spread, growth rate moderate; 
lvs. narrowly elliptic, pointed at both ends, to 2.9 cm long, 1 cm wide, 
3-8 minute forward-pointing crenations on each margin, more 
commonly larger near the tip; petioles to 0.4 cm long; yellow 
variegations from all yellow to irregular shaped patches of variable size 
in any portions of the blade, but more often at the tip; male; hardy 
USDA zone 7. This is a renaming of KIIRO-FUKURIN, PI 236021, NA 
25700, coll. by J. Creech at Nakada Nurs., Angyo, Japan 1956. KIIRO- 
FUKURIN is a common Japanese name, in Romanji, meaning yellow 
margin. It cannot be recognized as a legitimate cultivar name. This new 
name commemorates the city of Angyo, Japan, the location of Nakada 
Nursery, where the plant was first obtained. The plant has been in 
cultivation in Japan for possibly more than 100 years. (Variegated 
Group). = KIIRO-FUKURIN. The new name ANGYO is published and 
documented here for the first time. 

ANNA FEILE (Atlantic Nurs., Dix Hills, New York, advert, in Composite 
Stock List, Long Island, New York, p. 32. 1986, without descr.). 

ARGENTEA VARIEGATA (Kissena Nurs., Parsons & Sons, Flushing, 
New York, cat. p. 85. 1887) - "Suffused with bright golden color." 
Name dubious when compared to description. W. Goldring, Garden 

19 



(London) 30:129. 1887 - mentioned a variegated form with silver 
markings, but did not name it. (Variegated Group). Illegitimate, since 
the name /. aquifolium ARGENTEA VARIEGATA has priority. 

AUREA (H.J. Weber & Sons Nurs., Nursery, Missouri, cat. p. 62. 1912) - 
as folis aureis; lvs. golden variegated; obtained from Holland. 
(Variegated Group). Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium AUREA 
published in 1856 has priority. = ? ROTUNDIFOLIA AUREA. 

var. aureo-variegata (W. Goldring, Garden (London) 31:129. 1887) - "lvs. 
mottled with bright golden yellow which with the green makes an 
extremely bright little shrub, especially in winter." L. Dippel, Handb. 
Laub., p. 509. 1892 - gold colored; with syn. I.fortunei aureo- 
variegata. A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 17:161. 1908 - in syn. 
of/, luteo-variegata (Regel) Rehder; additional syns. listed were var. 
luteo-variegata Regel, "f." variegata Nicholson, and I.fortunei 
f. aureo-variegata Schelle. Idem, Man. Cult. Trees & Shrubs, p. 545. 
1927 - with syn. var. variegata Bean. Idem, Biblio. Trees & Shrubs, 
p. 402. 1949 - with syn. var. variegata Nicholson. S.-y. Hu, Jour. 
Arnold Arb. 49:325. 1949 - follows Rehder's syn. with the additional 
syn. of var. variegata Dallimore. B. Boom, Nederl. Dendr., 3d ed., 
p. 310. 1949 - in syn. of var. luteo-variegata Regel, additional syn. of 
var. fortunei Hort. G. Kriissmann, Handb. Laub., 1st ed., Fascicle Pub., 
2:23. Dec. 1960 - as AUREO-VARIEGATA based on Goldring's var. 
aureo-variegata. Invalid as a bot. var., since it was based on a cultivated 
plant. = AUREO-VARIEGATA, f. aureo-variegata of Schelle, 
VARIEGATA of Hillier, not LUTEO-VARIEGATA of Boom. 

f. aureo-variegata (L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handb. Laub.- 
Ben., p. 291. 1903, as /. crenata f. aureo-variegata or I.fortunei 
f. aureo-variegata, without descr.). = AUREO-VARIEGATA, var. 
aureo-variegata Goldring, VARIEGATA of Hillier. 

AUREO-VARIEGATA (B. Boom, Nederl. Dendr., 4th ed., p. 337. 1959) - 
like LATIFOLIA but lvs. spotted or marbled yellow; cult. 1887. Ibid., 
p. 323. 1965 and 1972 - lvs. large and rounded like those of 
ROTUNDIFOLIA and LATIFOLIA. G. Kriissmann, Handb. Laub., 1st 
ed., Fascicle Pub., 2:23. 1960 - lvs. 2-4 cm long, gold spotted or 
marbled; cult, in England, 1887. Based on Goldring's var. aureo- 
variegata, which has been variously placed in syn. of several other 
names. Descriptions by Boom and Kriissmann indicate that AUREO- 
VARIEGATA is a different clone from LUTEO-VARIEGATA. 
Although more descriptive information would be helpful, the leaves of 
AUREO-VARIEGATA are said by Boom to be larger than those of 
LUTEO-VARIEGATA. The leaves of AUREO-VARIEGATA are 
also said to be mottled or blotched as well as spotted, while the leaves 
of LUTEO-VARIEGATA are described only as being spotted. We have 
observed that both leaf size and spotted variegations in leaves of 
/. crenata may be unstable and may vary with climate and culture on 



20 



the same plant and may vary between plants of the same clone. 
(Variegated Group). Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium AUREO- 
VARIEGATA has priority. = var. aureo-variegata Goldring, f. aureo- 
variegata Schelle, ? MICROPHYLLA AUREO-VARIEGATA, 
ROTUNDIFOLIA AUREO-VARIEGATA, VARIEGATA of Hillier, 
not LUTEO-VARIEGATA. 

BEEHIVE (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Jour. Holly Soc. Amer. 3(1):32. 
1985) - Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 1 1-84 by E. Orton, Jr. E. Orton, Jr., 
Chicago Bot. Gdn. Res. Symp., p. 5. March 22-23. 1982 - dense, 
compact; lvs. very small, light green; male; orig. from a cross made 
1965 at Rutgers — The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, by 
E. Orton, Jr., of CONVEXA X STOKES; the only plant sel. for introd. 
from among 21,000 sdlgs. Idem, p. 6. - refers to GREEN CLOUD, 
which is the original but only tentative name for BEEHIVE. 

(Bennett Hybrid Group) C. Tuley in H. Dengler, Amer. Nurseryman 
121(10):9. 1965, and C. Tuley, Proc. 38th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., 
p. 1-3. 1965 - orig. from a cross made by interplanting of CONVEXA X 
ROTUNDIFOLIA in 1945 by E. Bennett at Greenbrier Farms Nurs., 
Chesapeake, Virginia. ALLEN SEAY, BENNETTII, COLUMNARIS, 
BENNETT'S COMPACT, COMPACTA of Tingle, CONVEXA 
MALE, FASTIGIATA, HADLOCK, HOWARD, HOWARD 
COMPACTA, MAJOR, MAXWELL, NIGRA, OLEAFERA, 
RECUR VIFOLIA, SELENE, VASEYI, and WILLOW LEAF were 
named from an original sdlg. population of 250,000-300,000. Some of 
these have been extremely successful in the nursery trade. 

BENNETTII (Greenbrier Farms, Chesapeake, Virginia, cat. p. 37. 1985) - 
semiupright; lvs. dark green. (Bennett Hybrid Group). Illegitimate, since 
the name is in Latin form. 

BENNETT'S COMPACT (E. Dubose Nurs., Huntsville, Alabama, 
advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 152(12):83. 1980, without descr., as 
BENNETT'S COMPACTA). C. Parkerson in Combined Proc. Intern. 
Pit. Propag. Soc. 80:483. 1980, without descr., as BENNETT'S 
COMPACTUM. Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 19. fall 1956- 
sp. 1957, as COMPACTA, with descr. - broad, glove-shaped, compact, 
needs no trimming; lvs. very dark green. H. Dengler, Amer. Nurseryman 
121(10):9. 1965 - upright, lvs. slightly convex; male. Probably the most 
important commercial cultivar of all Ilex at this time. (Bennett Hybrid 
Group). Legitimately published here by choosing the most acceptable 
name, correcting the orthography, and accepting the descr. of the earliest 
published but illegitimate commercial synonym COMPACTA of Tingle 
Nurs. = COMPACTA (Bennett Hybrid Group), CONVEXA 
COMPACTA of Lovett and Cartwright; not CONVEXA COMPACTA 
of Wayside. 

BILOXI (Cartwright Nurs., Collierville, Tennessee, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 104(7): 18. 1956, without descr.). Robbins Nurs., Willard, 



21 



North Carolina, cat. p. 2. 1963-64 - upright, bushy, medium growth; lvs. 
excellent dark green; hardy; "new." 

BIM (Piney Ridge Nurs., Bostic, North Carolina, cat. p. 2. August 1984, 
without descr.). = ? BIMI. 

BIMI (Magnolia Gdns. Nurs., Charleston, South Carolina, cat. p. 9. 1976, 
without descr.). = ? BIM. 

BIR (Piney Ridge Nurs., Bostic, North Carolina, cat. p. 2. August 1983, 
without descr). = ? BIRMINGHAM. 

BIRMINGHAM (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Jour. Holly Soc. Amer. 
2(2); 10. 1984) - sel. from among 1,000 sdlgs. purchased by Styer Nurs., 
Concordville, Pennsylvania and introd. 1980; low growing, mound 
shape; lvs. lanceolate to broadly lanceolate; female; Holly Soc. Amer. 
Reg. No. 3-84 by J. Franklin Styer, West Chester, Pennsylvania. = ? 
BIR. 

BLACK BEAUTY (Girard Nurs., Geneva, Ohio, cat. fall 1968) - lvs. dark 
green, glossy. Ibid., cat. p. 26. 1969 - compact, low growing; very 
hardy; a Girard sel.; male. Ibid., cat. p. 26. 1972 - sel. most of all for 
hardiness. Illegitimate, since the name /. opaca BLACK BEAUTY has 
priority. 

BORDER GEM (Girard Nurs., Geneva, Ohio, cat. fall 1968) - low 
growing. Ibid., cat. p. 26. 1969 - dense; very hardy; a Girard sel. 
J. McDaniel, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 66; 12. 1980 - male; hardy in 
Urbana, Illinois; orig. at Girard Nurs. 

BRADDOCK (Southside Nurs., Richmond, Virginia, cat. p. 2. fall 1960- 
sp. 1961, without descr.). = BRADDOCK HEIGHTS. 

BRADDOCK HEIGHTS (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:23. 
1953, without descr.) - sel. at Braddock Heights, Maryland, 1935, by 
H. Hohman, Kingsville Nurs., Kingsville, Maryland. Valuable in 
landscape as a tall, narrow screening pit. = BRADDOCK. 

BRUNS (J. Bruns, Baumschulen, Bad Zwischenahn, West Germany, cat. 
p. 130. 1959-60) - broad compact; winter hardy form; recommended for 
specimen planting and hedges. 

(Bullata Group) (Hortus Third, p. 591. 1976) - "best considered a large 
group of clones generally characterized by bullate, convex lvs." 
Rejected here as a group name on the basis that the cultivar names 
included in this group are not listed in Hortus Third. While there are 
many cultivars with convex and bullate leaves, this characteristic is not 
always clear-cut. Leaf variations from strongly convex to flat occur 
between the cultivars. Furthermore, the group name Bullata is derived 
from f. bullata Rehder, which was invalidated many years ago [cf. 
A. Rehder, Jour. Arnold Arb. 12:(errata and addenda) 1931]. To avoid 
confusion the word "bullata" in any form should not be used in the 
cultivar nomenclature of/, crenata, except in syn. 

f. bullata (A. Rehder, Jour. Arnold Arb. 12(1):73. 1931, and 12(4):309. 
1931) - upright shrub with spreading branchlets; lvs. oval or obovate to 



22 



oblong-oval, obtuse at the tip, convex and very shiny; fr. black, 
sometimes 3 in a cyme; cult, in Arnold Arb. (Acces. no. 20069) from a 
plant sent from Japan in 1919 by E.H. Wilson as /. mariesii; distributed 
by Arnold Arb. as /. mahesii and /. nummularia [this plant does not 
represent cultivars MARIESII or NUMMULARIA], At the Arnold 
Arb. it proved hardier than typical /. crenata and hardier than /. crenata 
var. microphylla Maximowicz. Idem, Jour. Arnold Arb. 12(4):309, and 
in the errata and addenda, 1931 - Rehder changed his f. bullata back to 
f. convexa (Makino) Rehder. = CONVEXA, BULLATA, BULLATA 
CONVEXA of Gresham, BUXIFOLIA of Tingle, var. convexa Makino, 
f. convexa (Makino) Rehder. 

BULLATA (K. Yashiroda, Ltd., Tonosho, Kyoku, Kanagawa-Ken, Japan, 
cat. p. 5. 1931-32) - dwarf; lvs. convex, dark green. This name is still 
frequently seen in U.S. nurseries. It seems very likely that Yashiroda's 
(1931-32) bullata is the same plant that Rehder (1931) named as 
f. bullata. = CONVEXA, f. bullata Rehder, BULLATA CONVEXA of 
Gresham, BUXIFOLIA of Tingle, var. convexa Makino, f. convexa 
(Makino) Rehder. 

BULLATA CONVEXA (Gresham's Nurs., Richmond, Virginia, advert, in 
Amer. Nurseryman 125(7):41. 1967, without descr.). This name is listed 
twice in the Gresham advert.; one listing noted it as male (= CONVEXA 
MALE - Bennett Hybrid Group and BULLATA CONVEXA MALE of 
Gresham). The other listing noted it as female (= CONVEXA, f. bullata 
Rehder, BUXIFOLIA of Tingle, var. convexa Makino, f. convexa 
(Makino) Rehder). 

BULLATA CONVEXA COMPACTA (Gresham's Nurs., Richmond, 
Virginia, advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 235(37):37, 41. 1967, without 
descr.). = BENNETT'S COMPACT, BENNETT'S COMPACTA, 
COMPACTA (Bennett Hybrid Group), CONVEXA COMPACTA of 
Lovett. 

BULLATA CONVEXA MALE (Gresham's Nurs., Richmond, Virginia, 
advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 125(7):37. 1967, without descr.). = 
BULLATA CONVEXA of Gresham when noted as male, CONVEXA 
MALE (Bennett Hybrid Group). 

BULLATA GREEN CONE (Holly Creek Nurs., Keller, Virginia, advert, in 
Amer. Nurseryman 128(5);66. 1968) - strictly upright; mutation of 
CONVEXA, not a sdlg. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. = 
GREEN CONE. 

BULLATA NO. 151 (J. Vestal & Son, Little Rock, Arkansas, cat. p. 3. 
1963, without descr.). = 151. 

BULLATA SUPREME (Jackson & Perkins Co., Perkins - deWilde Div., 
Shiloh, New Jersey, cat. p. 26. 1965-66) - low, spreading; lvs. broadly 
oval, convex, very glossy, dark green. Illegitimate, since the name is in 
Latin form. 



23 



BUNTING (Bunting's Nurs., Selbyville, Delaware, cat. p. 25. sp. 1961, 
without descr.). 

BUTLER (Butler Nurs., Fayetteville, North Carolina, cat. p. 8. 1967-68, 
without descr., as one of their introd.). Idem, cat. p. 12. sp. 1991, as 
BUTLERI - discovered by Gorden Butler; upright, habit similar to 
STEED'S with a "loose fullness"; lvs. lustrous; fr. yellow; hardy to 
southern Pennsylvania. (Watanabeana Group). 

BUTTERBALL (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 139(6):82. 1974, without descr.). Ibid., Price list, fall 1977 - 
yellow fr., orig. from sdlgs. distrib. by USDA Pit. Intro. Sta., Glenn Dale, 
Maryland; named by Cannon; sister sdlg. of FORTY NINER, 
HONEYCOMB, IVORY HALL, IVORY TOWER, SIR ECHO, 
STARGLOW. Illegitimate, since descr. is inadequate. (Watanabeana 
Group). 

BUXIFOLIA (Andorra Nurs., Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 17. 
1912, without descr.). Thought to be Andorra's own sel. Illegitimate, 
since the name /. aquifolium BUXIFOLIA has priority. 

BUXIFOLIA (Cottage Gdns., Queens Village, New York, cat. p. 1 1. 1931) 
- dwarf, irregular branched; lvs. small, boxlike. Illegitimate, since the 
name /. aquifolium BUXIFOLIA has priority. 

BUXIFOLIA (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 32. sp. 1935, 
without descr.) - in syn. of CONVEXA. Ibid., cat. p. 42. fall 1935 - 
BULLATA and BUXIFOLIA in syn. of CONVEXA. = CONVEXA, 
f. bullata Rehder, var. convexa Makino, f. convexa (Makino) Rehder. 

BUXIFOLIA (Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 16. 1954-55) - 
columnar, very hardy; male. Orig. as sdlg. of CONVEXA about 1946; 
sel. 1950; named and introd. by Tom Dodd Nurs. 1954. D. Wyman, 
Arnoldia 20(7);46. 1960, and Amer. Nurseryman 1 12(9):23. 1960 - of 
Tom Dodd Nurs.; "name which in its varietal form has been determined 
as a syn. of convexa' 1 [= CONVEXA]. It is unclear whether Wyman 
intended "his" var. to be ranked a botanical variety or cultivar. There is 
no valid published botanical rank of/, crenata var. buxifolia. The bot. 
var. convexa Makino (1928) was reduced to f. convexa (Makino) Rehder 
in 1931 and is now interpreted as cultivar CONVEXA. Cultivar 
BUXIFOLIA of Dodd is a different clone that does not fit the description 
of CONVEXA and is not synonymous. Further, /. crenata BUXIFOLIA 
is illegitimate at the cultivar rank, since the name /. aquifolium 
BUXIFOLIA has priority. /. crenata BUXIFOLIA of Dodd, of Andorra, 
of Cottage Gardens, and of Towson are all different plants of 
independent origin. Only /. crenata BUXIFOLIA of Tingle can be 
equated to CONVEXA. 

BUXIFOLIA (Towson Nurs., Towson, Maryland, cat. p. 37. 1930) - 
columnar; lvs. broad, dark green; female. Orig. as sdlg. in Towson Nurs. 
Named and introd. 1924-25 by Towson Nurs. Illegitimate, since the 
name /. aquifolium BUXIFOLIA has priority. 



24 



CANTON (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:24. 1953, without 
descr.) - introd. about 1947 by Styer's Nurs. D. Wyman, Amer. 
Nurseryman 1 12(9): 122. 1960 - irregular, medium, conical; lvs. small, 
light green. Sdlg. orig. about 1932; sel. and named by Styer's Nurs., 
Concordville, Pennsylvania. 

CAPE FEAR (Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, cat. sp. 1972, 
without descr.). Ibid., cat. p. 2. sp. 1978 - upright, medium bulk; lvs. 
dark green; broadly elliptic; male. 

CAREFREE (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 72:6. 
1982) - sdlg. sel. from PI 275853 (1961) as /. crenata subsp. radicans; 
dwarf, mound shape, open branched; female; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. 4- 
82 by D. Bradshaw and L. Schmid, Clemson University, Clemson, South 
Carolina. This is a selection of/, crenata var. paludosa. 

CAROLINA UPRIGHT (Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, cat. p. 
3. sp. 1978, without descr.). Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 75:12. 1983, without 
descr. Male. Upright pyramidal; lvs. dark green, broadly elliptic, glossy. 
Margins crenulate. By providing a descr., the authors are the first to 
legitimately publish the name CAROLINA UPRIGHT. 

CENTENNIAL (C. Orndorff, Nurserymen's News, Coop. Extension 
Service, University of Maryland, p. 12, Nov. -Dec. 1987) - upright, 
suitable for tall, narrow to medium width screening or hedges. 

CHANGSHA (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:24. 1953, without 
descr.) - introd. about 1947 by Styer's Nurs. D. Wyman, Amer. 
Nurseryman 1 12(9): 122. 1960 - upright, irregular, slow growing; lvs. 
quite small, dark green; female. Sdlg. orig. about 1932. Sel. and named 
by Styer's Nurs., Concordville, Pennsylvania. 

CHENGTU (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:24. 1953, without 
descr.) - introd. about 1947 by Styer's Nurs., Concordville, 
Pennsylvania. Clarendon Gardens Nurs., Pinehurst, North Carolina, cat. 
1957, without descr., as CHANGTU. D. Wyman, Amer. Nurseryman 
1 12(9): 122. 1960 - irregular, slow growing; lvs. small, dark green; 
female. Sdlg. orig. about 1932. Sel. and named by Styer's Nurs. 

CHEROKEE (Tennessee Valley Nurs., Winchester, Tennessee, cat. p. 10. 
fall 1963) - new; upright; good foliage. Commercial Nurs., Dechard, 
Tennessee, cat. p. 6. 1975 - lvs. small; no fruit. Presumably male. A very 
marginal descr. = UPRIGHT CHEROKEE. 

CHESAPEAKE (Chesapeake Nurs., Salisbury, Maryland, cat. fall 1977- 
sp. 1978) - new; upright, pyramidal; lvs. glossy, deep green, convex. 

COLE'S HARDY (Cole Nurs., Painesville, Ohio, cat. p. 44. 1956, as 
COLE'S HARDY TYPE) - upright; very hardy. 

COLUMNARIS (Greenbrier Farms Nurs., Norfolk, Virginia, cat. p. 39. 
1971-72, without descr.) - columnar; lvs. dark green; female. Sel. and 
introd. by Greenbrier Farms, Greenbrier's Control No. 4923. (Bennett 
Hybrid Group). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form and the 
name /. opaca COLUMNARIS (= /. opaca OLD FAITHFUL) has 
priority. 

25 



COMPACT GREEN GEM (R. Self, Proc. South. Nurs. Assn. Res. Conf. 
Ann. Rpt. 23:186-87. 1978, without descr.). 

COMPACTA (Anonymous, Proc. 3d Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 8. 1948, 
without descr.) - list of Ilex at Rutgers — The State University, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey. Possibly a sel. by Stokes Nurs., Butler, 
Pennsylvania. Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium COMPACTA 
has priority. Not a Bennett hybrid. 

COMPACTA (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 25:16. 1965, without 
descr.) - rec. from deWilde's Rhodo-Lake Nurs. by Rutgers — The State 
University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. = SCHWOEBEL'S 
COMPACT, SCHWOEBELI, SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACTA. 

COMPACTA (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 25:16. 1965, without 
descr.) - rec. from John Vermeulen and Son Nurs. by Rutgers — The State 
University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. = HOOGENDORN, 
COMPACTA HOOGENDORN. 

COMPACTA (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 19. fall 1956-57) - 
broad, glove-shape, compact, needs no trimming; lvs. very dark green; 
Bennett Hybrid. H. Dengler, Amer. Nurseryman 121(10):9. 1965 - 
upright; lvs. slightly convex; male. Commercially, probably the most 
important cultivar of Ilex at this time. (Bennett Hybrid Group). 
Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium COMPACTA has priority. 
This entry provides the earliest published reference and description on 
which the name BENNETT'S COMPACT was based. = BENNETT'S 
COMPACT, BENNETT'S COMPACTA, BULLATA CONVEXA 
COMPACTA, CONVEXA COMPACTA of Cartwright and of Lovett, 
? SPREADING COMPACTA. 

COMPACTA (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:25. 1953, without 
descr.) - orig. Holland 1917; then reported about 1920 at Boulevard 
Nurs., Newport, Rhode Island. Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium 
COMPACTA has priority. 

COMPACTA HOOGENDORN (John Vermeulen Nurs., Neshanic Sta., 
New Jersey, cat. p. 2. 1961) - habit low, compact; lvs. bright. 
Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. = HOOGENDORN, 
COMPACTA of Vermuelen. 

COMPACTA NANA #1 (John Vermeulen & Son Nurs., Neshanic Sta., 
New Jersey, cat. p. 1 1. fall 1958-sp. 1959) - compact; lvs. small, bright 
green. Renamed GLORY in 1962 by J. Vermeulen. = GLORY, 
COMPACTA NO. 2, COMPACTA #2, GREEN GLORY. 

COMPACTA NO. 2 (John Vermeulen & Son, Neshanic Sta., New Jersey, 
cat. fall 1958-sp. 1959, without descr.). H. Flint and C. Hubbuch, Amer. 
Nurseryman 169(3): 154. 1989, as syn. of GLORY. = GLORY, 
COMPACTA NANA #1, COMPACTA #2, GREEN GLORY. 

COMPACTA #2 (John Vermeulen & Son Nurs., Neshanic Sta., New 
Jersey, cat. p. 1 1 . sp. 1960) - like Cotoneaster horizontalis but more 
upright; lvs. small. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. = 



26 



GLORY, COMPACTA NANA #1, COMPACTA NO. 2, GREEN 
GLORY. 

CONNERS (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 25:16. 1965) - upright, 
compact; lvs. roundish; young stems reddish winter color. Volunteer 
sdlg. sel. made about 1946 at J. Schmit's Nurs., Millburn, New Jersey, 
by C. Conners of Rutgers — The State University, New Brunswick, New 
Jersey. Grown at Rutgers as crenata #1, and by E. Wyckoff, Bedminster, 
New Jersey, who offered it for sale sometime before 1954. Narrow, 
upright, columnar, about 3 times taller than wide, rounded top. Thought 
to be hardy to -5°F. 

var. convexa (T. Makino, Jour. Jap. Bot. 5:27. 1928) - lvs. small, dense, 
elliptical, obtuse at apex, shortly obtuse-cuneate at base, depressed, 
serrate toward the apex, "concavoconvex" toward the upper surface, 
petiole short; habitat Setsu Province, Arima, Japan; coll. 1928 from a 
garden. Although it was reduced to the rank of botanical forma by 
Rehder, Makino's plant should not be recognized at any botanical rank, 
since it was from cult, origin and, therefore, is a cultivar. = CONVEXA, 
BULLATA, f. bullata Rehder, BUXIFOLIA of Tingle, f. convexa 
(Makino) Rehder. 

f. convexa (Makino) Rehder (A. Rehder, Jour. Arnold Arb. 12(4):Errata 
and Addenda 309. 1931) - Rehder corrected his previous entry [Idem, 
Jour. Arnold Arb. 12(1):73. 1931], which described f. bullata Rehder as 
new. Rehder recognized, in the "Errata and Addenda," that his f. bullata 
was synonymous with /. crenata var. convexa Makino [= CONVEXA]. 
However, he complicated the issue in 1931 (p. 309) by incorrectly citing 
var. convexa Makino as f. convexa Makino. By reducing var. convexa 
Makino to forma rank, the 1931 p. 309 Rehder entry should have been 
listed as /. crenata f. convexa (Makino) Rehder. Later [in Biblio. Trees 
& Shrubs p. 402. 1949], A. Rehder recognized the error in his 1931 
"Errata ,, and indicated f. convexa (Makino) Rehder was "grad. novT [= 
new change in rank]. See f. bullata for descr. = CONVEXA, BULLATA, 
f. bullata Rehder, BUXIFOLIA of Tingle, var. convexa Makino. 

CONVEXA (T. Makino, Jour. Jap. Bot. 5:27. 1928, as var. convexa) - 
named from a pit. in cult. A. Rehder, Jour. Arnold Arb. 12(1):73. 1931, 
and idem, Jour. Arnold Arb. 12(4):309. 1931, as f. convexa. See var. 
convexa Makino and f. convexa (Makino) Rehder for descr. and 
convoluted nomenclatural history of this female clone. Since it orig. in 
cult., f. convexa is interpreted by the authors of this checklist as a 
cultivar. At the Arnold Arboretum CONVEXA proved hardier than 
/. crenata f. crenata and f. microphylla. D. Wyman, Amer. Nurseryman 
27(9):116. 1960, and idem, Arnoldia 20(7):41. 1960, as convexa - 
original pit. introd. 1919 into American Gardens by Arnold Arb.; 
through distrib. by Arnold Arboretum CONVEXA became popular in 
the nursery trade. The earliest U.S. nursery cat. entries of this name, at 
any rank, are as follows: Bay State Nurs., North Abington, 



27 



Massachusetts, cat. 1934; and Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. 
fall 1934. The names CON VEX A and BULL ATA have been confused 
with each other and are thought by some to be two distinct cultivars, 
although in fact they are the same clone. The name BULLATA 
originated from f. bullata Render, and although corrected by Rehder to 
f. convexa in the same publication in the same year, the name 
BULLATA became so entrenched that it is still seen in nursery 
catalogs. = BULLATA, f. bullata Rehder, BUXIFOLIA of Tingle, var. 
convexa Makino, f. convexa (Makino) Rehder. 

CONVEXA AUREA (Collins Reid Nurs., Aldergrove, British Columbia, 
Canada, in T.Y. Cole, Woody Plant Source List, Ornamentals Section, 
Ottawa Research Station, Agriculture Canada, p. 29. 1982, without 
descr.). 

CONVEXA COMPACTA (Lovett's Nurs., Colts Neck, New Jersey, cat. 
p. 25. 1966-sp. 1967, without descr.). Cartwright Nurs., Collierville, 
Tennessee, advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 124(12):6. 1966, without 
descr. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form and is a later 
synonym of COMPACTA. = COMPACTA (Bennett Hybrid Group), 
not CONVEXA COMPACTA of Wayside. 

CONVEXA COMPACTA (Wayside Gardens, Mentor, Ohio, cat. p. 150. 
1966) - dwarf, compact, and hardiest form of CONVEXA. Illegitimate, 
since the name is in Latin form. Not CONVEXA, not COMPACTA of 
(Bennett Hybrid Group), and not CONVEXA COMPACTA of Lovett. 

CONVEXA HORIZONTALS (John Dieckmann & Sons, Wheeling, West 
Virginia, cat. p. 8. 1980) - horizontal branching; lvs. like CONVEXA. 
Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 

CONVEXA MALE (Robbin's Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, cat. p. 3. 
1963-64) - growth and appearance exactly like those of CONVEXA; 
without fruit. C. Tuley in H. Dengler, Amer. Nurseryman 121(1):88. 
1965 and C. Tuley, Proc. 38th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer. p. 2. 1965, as 
CONVEXA (male) - similar to CONVEXA and as good in every way, 
but without objectionable heavy fruiting; male; (Bennett Hybrid 
Group). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 

CONVEXA NANA (Strander Evergreen Nurs., Seattle, Washington, cat. 
p. 11. 1951) - dwarf, moundlike growth. 

CONVEXA TORULOSA (Bobtown Nurs., Melfa, Virginia, cat. p. 3. sp. 
1991, without descr.). = ROCKY CREEK. 

CONVEXA UPRIGHT (J. Dickerson & Assoc, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 144(5):48. 1976, without descr.) - listed in auction of 
Millcreek Landscape Div., Newark, Delaware. Pyramidal; lvs. shiny, 
convex. Did not orig. from Millcreek but was named there from a plant 
reputedly obtained from Greenbrier Farms Nurs., Norfolk, Virginia, 
about 1956. Thought to have been a USDA plant that Greenbrier was 
testing as one of the Glass selections. Does not fit the descr. of GLASS. 
More likely, it was the early Bennett Hybrid called FASTIGIATA. 



28 



Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. (Bennett Hybrid Group). = 
FASTIGIATA of (Bennett Hybrid Group). 

CONVEXA XANTHOCARPA (J. Dickerson & Assoc., advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 144(5):48. 1976, without descr.) - listed in auction of 
Millcreek Landscape Div., Newark, Delaware. Illegitimate, since the 
name is in Latin form and a descr. is lacking. (? Watanabeana Group). 

COULTERI (Mitsch Nurs., Aurora, Oregon, cat. p. 17. fall 1978-sp. 1979, 
as new listing, without descr.). Illegitimate by lack of descr. and name 
in Latin form. 

var. crenata The automatic type or typical botanical variety. It is used in 
current plant taxonomy and nomenclature as a standard by which newly 
proposed botanical varieties are compared. For definition of a botanical 
variety see section on Nomenclatural History in this book. The descr. 
for var. crenata is identical to that provided for /. crenata on p. 4 of the 
section entitled "Description and Status of Ilex crenata" = var. typica. 

f. crenata (S.-y. Hu, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4): 198. 1970) - the typical wild 
form with globose habit, obovate-oblong lvs., plain on both surfaces, 
3/4"- 1" long, 1/2" wide. This name as a forma is included only because 
it appears in many horticultural publications. By current botanical 
nomenclature, there must be a type forma for each species with which 
to compare other botanical formae erected within the same species. Ilex 
crenata is quite variable in habit and leaf form in the wild, and 
considerable variations can occur among sdlg. populations from any 
parent plant. Most cultivars have originated as sdlg. selections and a 
few by mutations. However, modern usage does not require the use of 
an authority for a "typical" forma, varietas, etc. = var. crenata, var. 
typica. 

CRESCENT (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 72:6. 
1982) - sdlg. sel. from PI 2761 12, (1961) as /. crenata subsp. radicans; 
dwarf, mound-shaped, compact, fastigiate branching, fine texture; male; 
Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 5-82 by D. Bradshaw and L. Schmid, 
Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. This is a selection of 
/. crenata var. paludosa. 

CURTIS ASKEW (Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 11. 1967- 
68, without descr.). Sel., named, and introd. by Tom Dodd, Jr. 

DAN'S GOLD New name. Spreading, vigorous; lvs. elliptic with pointed 
tips, irregularly and prominently yellow spotted and blotched; discov. as 
a mutation of MICROPHYLLA and introd. about 1980 by Dan Fenton, 
American Holly Products, Milville, New Jersey. Since the earliest 
published name VARIEGATED MICROPHYLLA for this plant is 
illegitimate, this later but previously unpublished syn. DAN'S GOLD 
is erected as the legitimate name. Published here for the first time. = 
GOLDEN MICROPHYLLA, VARIEGATED MICROPHYLLA. 

DAUBER COMPACTA (Dauber Nurs., York, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 10. 
sp. 1959, without descr.). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form 



29 



and descr. is lacking. 

DELAWARE DIAMOND New Name. Sdlg. sel. and distrib. in late 
1970's by Norman Cannon, Greenwood, Delaware, under the 
unpublished named ELFIN. Not to be confused with the name /. opaca 
ELFIN, which was published in 1952. Grown commercially by 
Environmentals, Cutchogue, New York, as ELFIN. Renamed 
DELAWARE DIAMOND by Cannon, since the name ELFIN is 
preoccupied by /. opaca ELFIN. Very dwarf, mound shape with 
spreading branches; lvs. elliptic, very small; male; excellent for rock 
gardens. Published here for the first time. = /. crenata ELFIN, NYMPH 
of CANNON. 

DENSE (Gerard Klyn, Mentor, Ohio, cat. p. 4. 1958, without descr.) - 
"Watch for 1959-60 introd." = MENTOR DENSE, ? DENS A. 

DIVARICATA (Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 4. 1955-56) - 
spreading like Pfitzer juniper; not as hardy as BUXIFOLIA of Dodd. Sel. 
1950, introd. 1955 by Tom Dodd Nurs. 

DODD (Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, cat. p. 2. sp. 1978) - 
similar to CON VEX A, but more upright; rapid, heavy growth; lvs. 
convex. 

DODD'S SPREADER (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 25: 17. 1965, 
without descr.) - grown at Rutgers — The State University, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey. It was grown before 1965 by Kingsville Nurs., 
Kingsville, Maryland. 

DUNCAN New name. Originated by C. Rowland, Evergreen Landscape 
Service, Athens, Georgia, before 1962; semispreading, but not quite as 
spreading as REPANDENS; lvs. very small but larger than HELLERI 
lvs.; male. The authors are the first to publish the name DUNCAN; 
documentation is provided. 

DWARF CONE (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. p. 1. fall 
1974, without descr.). Ibid., cat. p. 2. sp. 1975 - new; male. G. Eisenbeiss 
and T. Dudley, Proc. 57th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 13. 1980 - Holly 
Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 3-80 by N. Cannon; upright, slow growing; lvs. 
glossy, black green, tip recurved on new growth; male; sel. 1964 from an 
F, cross of CONVEXA X MICROPHYLLA made by Cannon (Cannon 
#664); named and introd. by Cannon. 

DWARF PAGODA (E. Orton, Jr., Proc. 47th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., 
p. 4. 1970) - extremely dwarf; orig. sel from a population of 800 sdlgs. 
from a cross of MARIESII X JOHN NOSAL made in 1965 by 
E. Orton, Jr., at Rutgers — The State University, New Brunswick, New 
Jersey; less than 14" tall at 5 yrs. old even under high nutrition and 
intensive care; recommended for bonsai and rock gardens. H. Dengler, 
Amer. Nurseryman 132(12):83. 1970, without descr. - parentage given 
erroneously as CONVEXA X STOKES. G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, 
Proc. 49th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 23. 1972 - Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. 
No. 10-72, 1972 by E. Orton, Jr.; habit irregular but essentially fastigiate, 



30 



internodes short, giving a heavy foliage effect; lvs. orbicular like 
MARIESII lvs. but much smaller; female; hardy in USDA zone 6b; 
sister sdlg. to GREEN DRAGON. (Nummularia Group). 

EDWIN DOZIER (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 25: 17. 1965, as 
EDWARD B. DOZIER, without descr.) - grown by W. Frierson, 
Danmark, South Carolina. Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. 
p. 12. 1966-67, as EDWIN B. DOZIER, without descr.). Ibid., cat. p. 7. 
1969-70, as EDWIN DOZIER, without descr. Compact, spreading with 
distinct horizontal branching, growing wider than tall; growth rate 
moderate but faster than that of LOYCE NELSON; lvs. small but larger 
than LOYCE NELSON lvs.; male. Sel. 1956 and circulated for testing 
as TD 56-342 by Tom Dodd. Named for a Baptist Missionary and introd. 
1966 by Tom Dodd. Legitimately published here for the first time with a 
description. 

ELEGANS MACULATA (Louis de Smet Nurs., Ledeberg-Lez-Gand, 
Belgium, cat. p. 59. 1877, as I.fortunei elegans maculatis) - lvs. 
extremely small, spotted yellow. (Variegated Group). 

ELLIPTA Compact, densely branched; lvs. narrow elliptic, glossy, dark 
green; discov. 1979 in Ernst Stuehrenberg Nurs., Weismoor, West 
Germany. Illegitimate by questionable Latin form of name. 

ELLIPTA CONVEX Mutation of ELLIPTA; compact, densely branched; 
lvs. yellowish green in full sun, narrowly elliptic, convex, finely serrate; 
very hardy; discov. in Ernst Stuehrenberg Nurs., Weismoor, West 
Germany. Illegitimate by questionable Latin form of part of name. 

ELLIPTA GOLD Mutation of and similar to ELLIPTA but with irregular 
yellow mottled lvs.; very hardy; discov. in Ernst Stuehrenberg Nurs., 
Weismoor, West Germany. Illegitimate by questionable Latin form of 
part of name. 

var. elliptica Hort. (A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 1908:161. 1908) - 
as an English garden form; in syn. of var. typica Loesener and with syn. 
var. major., var. latifolia, and I.fortunei, based on material examined by 
Rehder from Kew Herbarium. B. Boom, Nederl. Dendr., 3d ed., p. 310. 
1949 - in syn. of var. latifolia Goldring and with var. major Hort.; ibid., 
4th ed., p. 337. 1959 - syn. of LATIFOLIA along with var. major Hort. 
and I.fortunei Hort. Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees and Shrubs, p. 544. 1927 - 
in syn. of var. latifolia Goldring, the typical form, with var. typica 
Loesener, and var. major Hort. in syn. The name var. major Hort. is used 
as a synonym of numerous clones. However, the primary current 
application of var. major Hort. seems to be as a synonym of 
LATIFOLIA. Certainly, /. elliptica Siebold ex Miquel and probably var. 
elliptica Hort. are synonyms of /. crenata var. crenata, the typical wild 
variety expression. 

ELMWOOD SELECT (Foxborough Nurs., Street, Maryland, cat. p. 8. fall 
1988, without descr.). 

ERECTA (Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, cat. p. 3. 1963-64) - 



31 



upright, full, and fairly rapid growing; lvs. rich dark green. = 
SCHWOEBEL'S UPRIGHT, EXCELSA, EXCELSA SCHWOEBEL, 
EXCELSA UPRIGHT. 

EXCELSA (LaBar's Rhododendron Nurs., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, cat. 
p. 2. sp. 1958) - dense, slow growing[!] Illegitimate, since the name 
/ aquifolium EXCELSA has priority. = SCHWOEBEL'S UPRIGHT, 
ERECTA, EXCELSA SCHWOEBEL, EXCELSA UPRIGHT. 

EXCELSA SCHWOEBEL (Chesapeake Nurs., Salisbury, Maryland, cat. 
fall 1978-sp. 1979) - pyramidal; extremely hardy. = SCHWOEBEL'S 
UPRIGHT, ERECTA, EXCELSA, EXCELSA UPRIGHT. 

EXCELSA UPRIGHT (Millcreek Nurs., Newark, Delaware, cat. 1958, 
without descr). = SCHWOEBEL'S UPRIGHT, ERECTA, EXCELSA, 
EXCELSA SCHWOEBEL. 

var.fastigiata (T. Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27:252. 1913) - tall 

branches, dense, erect, fastigiate; lvs. similar to type; discovered 1911 in 
cult., Kuroki-machi, Chikugo Prov., Japan; garden variety, very rare. = 
FASTIGIATA of S.-y. Hu, i.fastigiata (Makino) Hara; not 
FASTIGIATA of Wada or the Bennett Hybrid. 

i.fastigiata (Makino) Hara (H. Hara, Enumeration Spermatophytarum 
Japonicarum. Pt. 3:69. 1954) - changed botanical rank of var.fastigiata 
Makino to forma. S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):49. 1957 - a 
horticultural form probably not yet intro. [to U.S.]. = FASTIGIATA of 
S.-y. Hu, vsLT.fastigiata Makino, not FASTIGIATA of Wada, or the 
Bennett Hybrid. 

FASTIGIATA (Greenbrier Farms Nurs., Norfolk, Virginia, cat. p. 45. 
1965) - narrow, fastigiate; lvs. thick, convex, dark green. C. Tuley in 
H. Dengler, Amer. Nurseryman 121(10):88. 1965, and C. Tuley in Proc. 
38th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 2. 1965 - female; (Bennett Hybrid 
Group). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form and since the name 
FASTIGIATA of S.Y. Hu has priority. This clone is different from 
FASTIGIATA of S.-y. Hu and of Wada. = CONVEXA UPRIGHT. 

FASTIGIATA (S.-y. Hu, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4): 198. 1970) - from 
Japan; probably not yet introd. to U.S.; changed the rank from 
i.fastigiata (Makino) Hara to cultivar status. = var. fastigiata Makino, 
i.fastigiata (Makino) Hara. 

FASTIGIATA (J. Sugimoto, New Keys to Woody Pits. Jap., p. 277. 1972) 
- erect branches grow in clusters which resemble a broom. Illegitimate 
cultivar name, since the name is in Latin form. Data insufficient to 
equate to var. fastigiata Makino or with FASTIGIATA of Hu, which 
may refer to a wild occurring plant. 

FASTIGIATA (K. Wada, Hakoneya Nurs., Numazu-Shi, Japan, cat. p. 39. 
1937, as crenata fastigiata) - another pygmy form with more rounded, 
beautiful lvs. Wada's sel. appears to be a different clone from Makino's, 
which S.-y. Hu treated as a cultivar. Makino's name fastigiata, although 
transferred from bot. var. to forma and to cv. rank (see i.fastigiata 



32 



(Makino) Hara and other FASTIGIATA entries) at a later date, has 
priority at cv. rank, invalidating Wada's use of the name FASTIGIATA 
at any rank. 

FIEL'S UPRIGHT (Roslyn Nurs., Dix Hills, New York, cat. p. 71. 1989, 
without descr.). 

FIREFLY (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. sp. 1973) - 
spreading, close breaking, fast growing, without need for much 
shearing; lvs. pointed, medium sized, recurved on new growth; new 
growth tinted yellow; male; Cannon #2066. G. Eisenbeiss and T. 
Dudley, Proc. 57th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 13. 1980 - Holly Soc. 
Amer. Reg. No. 4-80 by N. Cannon; male; orig. 1954 from an F 3 
population that was from a cross of CONVEXA X MICROPHYLLA; 
sel., named and introd. by Cannon. 

FLUSHING (J. Vermeulen & Son, Neshanic Sta., New Jersey, cat. p. 1 1. 
sp. 1960) - compact, medium height, upright; lvs. large, light green. 
Male. 

var. fortunei (Kingsville Nurs., Kingsville, Maryland, cat. p. 6. 1932, 
without descr.). Ibid., cat. p. 32. 1951 - strong grower; lvs. small, 
pointed, very shiny, dark green. Distinct upright; lvs. to 1 3/4" long, 
1/2" wide; female. Appears to be different clone from Nicholson. = 
? FORTUNEI. 

var. fortunei (T. Loesener, Monog. Aquif., Pt. 1, p. 201. 1901) - of 
gardeners, not Lindley. = var. typica Loesener. Leaf sizes not given by 
Loesener for "his" var. typica. 

var. fortunei (G. Nicholson, Illus. Diet. Gard. 2:174. 1884) - rounder lvs. 
and stronger growth than those of type. L. Spaeth Nurs., Berlin, 
Germany, cat. p. 90. 1901-02 - low, graceful; small, oval, dark green 
lvs. = FORTUNEI. 

f. fortunei (S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1):49. 1957) - a horticultural 
var. with large lvs. 3/4"- 1 3/4" long, obtuse at apex; = LATIFOLIA, 
var. latifolia Goldring, f. latifolia (Goldring) Rehder, f. major, 
f. rotundifolia. 

FORTUNEI (Hortus Third, p. 591. 1976) - lvs. oblong-elliptic, 3/4"-l 1/4" 
long, to 5/8" wide, serrate; with LATIFOLIA in syn. Descriptions from 
different sources vary. At various ranks within /. crenata, the name 
fortunei, originating with I. fortunei Miquel, is confusing and difficult 
to identify to a single clone. Some authors have assigned the name 
fortunei in synonymy to various other cultivar names, therefore 
confusing the syn. = I. fortunei Hort. ex Miquel, var. fortunei 
Nicholson, LATIFOLIA, f. latifolia (Goldring) Rehder, var. typica 
Loesener. 

FORTY NINER (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. p. 2. sp. 
1975) - upright; fruit yellow. Sister sdlg. to BUTTERBALL, 
HONEYCOMB, IVORY HALL, IVORY TOWER, SIR ECHO, 
STARGLOW. (Watanabeana Group). 



33 



FOSTER NO. 1 (T. Owen & Son, Columbus, Mississippi, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 107(2):90. 1958, as FOSTERI NO. 1 or FOSTER #1) - 
new; compact, spreading; lvs. small, serrate, not convex, more pointed 
than CONVEXA. Cottage Hill Nurs., Mobile, Alabama, cat. p. 5. 
1958-59 - descr. identical to that given by T. Owen. D. Wyman, 
Arnoldia 20(7):44. 1960 - very low, compact, spreading; a sel. by 
E. Foster, Bessemer, Alabama. Sandhills Community College, Holly 
Soc. Amer. Let. 75:12. 1983 - male. Introd. early 1950's by E. Foster. 
Illegitimate, since the name /. X attenuata FOSTER #1, which was also 
originated by E. Foster, has priority. 

FOSTER NO. 2 (Calvin Harman Nurs., Stoval, Georgia, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 123(2):97. 1966, without descr.). F. Galle, Proc. 40th Meet. 
Holly Soc. Amer., p. 12. 1966, as FOSTER'S SELECTION NO. 2 - 
spreading. Sel. and introd. early 1950's by E. Foster, Bessemer, 
Alabama, who also orig. /. X attenuata FOSTER #2. Often listed as 
FOSTER #2. Illegitimate, since there is no description, and the name 
/. X attenuata FOSTER #2 has priority. 

FRIERSON New name. Upright; lvs. 3.8 cm long, 1.3 cm wide but 
usually smaller, dullish green. Probably sel. by W. Frierson, Danmark, 
South Carolina, before 1963. Grown at Callaway Gdns., Pine Mountain, 
Georgia; and Rutgers — The State University, New Brunswick, New 
Jersey. ? Female. Sometimes known as FRIERSON SPECIAL. The 
authors are the first to publish the name FRIERSON; documentation is 
provided. = FRIERSON SPECIAL. 

i.fructo-alba (Aritaki Arboretum, Seed Exchange List, Saitama-Ken, 
Japan, p. 3. 1975, without descr.) - seed from cult. pits. No author 
citation or other ref. has been found for this name. Female plants grown 
at the National Arboretum from this seed produced pale yellow fruit (not 
white) and were similar in fruit color and foliage to f. watanabeana 
Makino. (Watanabeana Group). 

subsp. fukasawana (Makino) Murata (G. Murata in Kitamura, S. & G. 
Murata, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 25(2-3):41. 1972, as change of rank). 
The basionym is var. fukasawana Makino (1913). = f . longipedunculata. 

var. fukasawana Makino (T. Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27(315): 77. 
1913, as a new var.) - differs from the /. crenata type by having thinner 
and irregularly more crenate lvs. and somewhat 3-sided young drupes. 
Especially found in southern Kyushu, Japan. H. Hyland, USDA Plant 
Inventory No. 168, p. 242. 1967 - seed from Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, 
presented 1960 by P. Kubota; PI 269255; ibid., No. 169, p. 150. 1967 - 
seed coll. in the wild 1961 by J. Creech at 900 m elev. on Mount 
Takakuma, Osumi Peninsula, Kyushu, Japan; PI 274539. = subsp. 
fukasawana (Makino) Murata, f. longipedunculata. 

FUKASAWANA (D. Huttleston, Plants Growing in Conservatories and 
Gdns., Longwood Gdns., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, p. 5. 1970, 
without descr.). Erroneously listed as a cv. = subsp. fukasawana 
(Makino) Murata. 

34 



FULVO-MARGINATA (J. Conder, Landscape Gardening in Japan, 2d 
ed., p. 112. 1912, without descr., as fulvo-marginata) - with common 
name in Romanji "Cha-fukurin-tsuge." The common name in English 
means tea-green margins while the Latin name means brownish- 
yellowish green margins. (Variegated Group). 

GABLE DWARF (Watnong Nurs., Morris Plains, New Jersey, cat. p. 3. 
1972-73) - really dwarf; tiny deep green lvs. = ? GABLE NO. 1, ? 
GABLE'S. 

GABLE NO. 1 (J. Ford, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 60:8. 1978, without descr.). 
= ? GABLE DWARF, ? GABLE'S. 

GABLE'S (J. Oppe, Proc. 51st Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 13. 1974, 
without descr.). Upright rounded; lvs. broadly elliptic to elliptic obovate, 
margins remotely serrate, tips acute, bases cuneate; male. Illegitimate, 
since /. X aquipernyi GABLE 1953 has priority. = ? GABLE DWARF, 
? GABLE NO. 1. 

GAYLE (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 72:6. 1982) 
- sdlg. sel. from USDA PI 276080, 1961 as /. crenata subsp. radicans\ 
low, mound-shaped, fastigiate branching, compact, slow growing; 
female; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 2-82 by D. Bradshaw and L. Schmid, 
Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. A selection of /. crenata 
var. paludosa. 

GLASS (Le-Mac Nurs., Hampton, Virginia, cat. p. 4. sp. 1944) - upright; 
lvs. small. Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6: 21. 1953, male, 
without descr. - introd. 1947 or earlier by P. Glass and H. Hohman. S.-y. 
Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):62. 1957 - compact upright; lvs. very small; 
a staminate clone of f. microphylla. = ? GLASS UPRIGHT. 

GLASS UPRIGHT (M. Baron and G. Parmalee, New Rare Plants on 
Campus, Michigan State University List No. 15:4. 1964, without descr.). 
= ? GLASS. 

var. globosa Maximowicz (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:32. 1953, 
as syn. of ? var. latifolia Goldring, without descr.). We can find no trace 
in the literature of a var. globosa Maximowicz. 

GLOBOSA (Lindley Nurs., Greensboro, North Carolina, cat. p. 21. 1939) - 
dwarfish compact; dark green foliage. Female. Illegitimate because of 
priority of/, opaca GLOBOSA. 

GLOBOSA ROTUNDIFOLIA (Gilmore Pit. and Bulb Co., Julian, North 
Carolina, cat. p. 12. fall 1987-sp. 1988, without descr). = HETZII, 
GLOBOSA ROTUNDIFOLIA HETZII, REFLEXA SUPREME. 

GLOBOSA ROTUNDIFOLIA HETZII (Gilmore Plant and Bulb Co., 
Julian, North Carolina, cat. p. 12. fall 1977-sp. 1978, without descr.). 
Ibid., cat. p. 12. fall 1978, without descr. A nomenclatural aberration 
apparently suggesting that GLOBOSA ROTUNDIFOLIA may be a syn. 
of HETZII. (Rovex Hybrid Group). = HETZII, GLOBOSA 
ROTUNDIFOLIA, REFLEXA SUPREME. 

GLORY (J. Vermeulen & Son Nurs., Neshanic Sta., New Jersey, cat. p. 4. 



35 



sp. 1961) - dense, compact globe, twiggy; lvs. small, thick, glossy. 
Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. p. 10. 1969-70 - dwarf, good 
mound form, similar to HELLERI but more vigorous. Flint, H. and 
Hubbuch, C, Amer. Nurseryman 169(3): 154. 1989 - CONVEXA sdlg.; 
introd. by Vermeulen & Son Nurs. cat. fall 1958-sp. 1959 as 
COMPACTA NO. 2, and first listed as GLORY in cat. sp. 1961; hardier 
than CONVEXA; hardy Zone 6A, USDA Hardiness Zone Map 1965; 
has survived -23°F with minimal injury. Hubbuch says, hardier than any 
/. crenata grown at Bernheim Forest, Louisville, Kentucky. Male 
named by J. Vermeulen & Son, who changed COMPACTA NANA #1 
to GLORY. = COMPACTA NANA #1, COMPACTA NO. 2, 
COMPACTA #2, GREEN GLORY. 

GLOSSY (Gerard K. Klyn Nurs., Mentor, Ohio, cat. p. 4. fall 1958, 
without descr.) - will be introd. 1959 [was introd. I960]. L. Lipp, Amer. 
Nurseryman 1 10(5):44. 1959 - sdlg. of CONVEXA; can develop faster 
than CONVEXA; lvs. slightly larger than parent, very waxy. Gerard K. 
Klyn Nurs., Mentor, Ohio, and A. Shammarello & Son Nurs., South 
Euclid, Ohio, joint advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 121(3):64. 1960 - 
introducing a slightly faster and more compact form than CONVEXA; 
lvs. glossy, dark green, convex; extremely hardy. = ? GLOSSY LEAF. 

GLOSSY LEAF (G. Klingaman, Amer. Nurseryman 154(1 1):1 17. 1981, 
without descr.). Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. p. 1 1. summer- 
fall 1985 - cone-shaped; lvs. dark green, glossy. = ? GLOSSY. 

GOLDEN GEM (H. Eddie and Sons Nurs., Vancouver, British Columbia, 
Canada, cat. p. 26. fall 1962-sp. 1963) - dense, similar to CONVEXA 
in habit; lvs. bright yellow year round; very hardy. D. van Gelderen, 
Dendroflora No. 33. 1971 - sdlg. sel. from seed; introd. to the trade 
some years ago by L. Konijn & Co., Reenwijk, Netherlands. Briggs 
Nurs., Olympia, Washington, cat. p. 1 1. 1980 - CONVEXA with a gold 
blush. Low spreading habit; lvs. golden yellow, turning green later; 
female. (Variegated Group). 

GOLDEN HELLER (J. Raulston, Inventory North Carolina State 
University Landscape Plants, p. 9. Dec. 1979, as GOLDEN HELLERI, 
without descr.). Lancaster Farms Nurs., Suffolk, Virginia, cat. 1981, 
without descr. Mutation from HELLERI with yellow cast to lvs. 
Discovered by R. Bock 1967; sold by Lancaster Farms Nurs. since 
1972. (Variegated Group). Female. By correcting the orthography, the 
authors are the first to legitimately publish the name GOLDEN 
HELLER. = LANCASTER YELLOW. 

GOLDEN QUEEN (Jour. Royal Hort. Soc. 94(2):463. 1969) - low 

growing; lvs. glossy, yellow; very hardy; exhibited at R. H. S. Fl. Show, 
London, England, Sept. 1969, by Burkwood & Skipwith of Elstead, 
England. (Variegated Group). Illegitimate, since the name of 
/. aquifolium GOLDEN QUEEN has priority. 

GOLDEN VARIEGATED (S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1):62. 1957) - 



36 



"a clone of f. luteo-variegata"', low growth; lvs. elliptic, acute at both 
ends, thickly coriaceous, shiny, some blotchy and spotted yellow, some 
entirely green; grown at Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland. Idem, Amer. 
Hort. Mag. 49(4): 198-99. 1970 - but not as a clone off. luteo-vahegata. 
This later publication also listed LUTEO-VARIEGATA by Hu, 
distinct from GOLDEN VARIEGATED. (Variegated Group). 

GOLDRUSH (Monroe Nurs., Crossville, Alabama, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 115(4):62. 1962, without descr.). 

GOULD (Stock Nurs., Rockville, Maryland, cat. p. 4. fall 1968-sp. 1969, 
without descr.). 

GRANDIFOLIA (J. Vermeulen & Son, Neshanic Sta., New Jersey, cat. 
p. 4. sp. 1949) - lvs. dark green, comparable to lvs. of California privet. 
S. Meehan, Florists Exchange 1 18(16):25. 1952 - shears readily; lvs. 
large; quite hardy; introd. by Vermeulen. Kingsville Nurs., Kingsville, 
Maryland, cat. p. 32. undated (prob. 1960's) - lvs. rounded, good size, 
bright shiny green. Female. Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6; 29. 
1953, without descr. - introd. 1948 by Vermeulen. D. Wyman, Arnoldia 
20(7):46. 1960 - prob. syn. of LATIFOLIA. Illegitimate, since the name 
/. aquifolium GRANDIFOLIA has priority. 

GREEN CLOUD (E. Orton, Jr., Chicago Bot. Gdn. Res. Symp., p. 6. 
March 22-23, 1982) - a tentative name of BEEHIVE. = BEEHIVE. 

GREEN CONE New name. Reformulation of the name BULLATA 
GREEN CONE, based on advert, by Holly Creek Nurs., Keller, 
Virginia, in Amer. Nurseryman 128(5):66. 1968; strictly upright, 
beautiful mate for BULLATA [CON VEX A]. Male. The name GREEN 
CONE without the word BULLATA is currently correct. The authors 
are the first to publish the name GREEN CONE. = BULLATA 
GREEN CONE. 

GREEN CUSHION (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:29. 1953, 
without descr.) - "Hohman orig. [Kingsville Nurs., Kingsville, 
Maryland]; Mclean sel. [Mclean Nurs., Towson, Maryland] about 1949; 
to be introd. 1953-54." Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 12. 
1958-59, without descr. = KINGSVILLE GREEN CUSHION, 
KINGWOOD GREEN CUSHION. 

GREEN DRAGON (E. Orton, Jr., Proc. 47th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., 
p. 4. 1970) - extremely dwarf, less than 14" tall at 5 yr. even when 
provided high nutrition and intensive care; recommended for bonsai and 
rock gdns.; orig. from a cross of MARIESII X JOHN NOSAL made 
in 1965 at Rutgers — The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 
by E. Orton, Jr., from an initial population of 800 sdlgs.; hardy at New 
Brunswick. H. Dengler, Amer. Nurseryman 132(12):83. 1970, without 
descr. - parentage erroneously given as CONVEXA X STOKES. 
G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Proc. 49th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 23. 
1972 - irregular but essentially horizontal; internodes short, giving a 
heavy foliaged effect; lvs. orbicular like those of MARIESII but much 



37 



smaller; male; brother sdlg. to DWARF PAGODA; USDA Hardiness 
Zone 6b; sel., named, introd. by E. Orton; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 
10-72, by E. Orton, Jr. (Nummularia Group). 

GREEN ISLAND (U.S. Pit. Pat. No. 817, Dec. 28, 1948) - to J. Styer; low, 
spreading, rapid growing, free branching, retains form without clipping; 
lvs. smaller than ordinary, good year-round color; male; hardy to Boston, 
Albany, northern New York; orig. from seed in Styer's Nurs., 
Concordville, Pennsylvania. Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:29. 
1953 - sel. 1935 and introd. by Styer 1949. Proc. 75th Ann. Conv. Amer. 
Nurserymen's Assoc, p. 138. 1949 - Pit. Reg. No. 150 by Styer's Nurs. - 
tolerant of wetness; hardy St. Louis, Pittsburgh, New York. 

GREEN LUSTER COMPACTA (Pallack Bros. Nurs., Harmony, 

Pennsylvania, cat. 1981) - medium growing; lvs. glossy. Presumably not 
the same plant as GREEN LUSTRE, since both names are also listed in 
the cat. Illegitimate, since part of the name is in Latin form. = 
? LUSTER. 

GREEN LUSTRE (Orlando Pride Nurs., Butler, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 5. 
1963-64, without descr.) - very hardy; sdlg. of STOKES. O. Pride, Proc. 
Holly Symp., Ann. Meet. Missouri State Nurs. Assoc, p. 1 1. 1963 - orig. 
about 1953 as a sdlg. of STOKES given to O. Pride by Warren Stokes, 
Butler, Pennsylvania; sel., named, and introd. by O. Pride; hardy as 
STOKES. Low, very compact, dwarf but faster growing than STOKES 
or TINY TIM, more upright than STOKES; lvs. slightly less than 2.54 
cm long, very dark and shiny; female. 

GREEN MOUNTAIN (H. Losely and Son Nurs., Perry, Ohio, cat. p. 7. sp. 
1981, without descr.). G. Klingaman, Amer. Nurseryman 154(12): 1 17. 
1981, without descr. 

GREEN PYGMY (R. Clark, Proc 28th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 11. 
1960) - Holly Soc Amer. Reg. No. 3-60, 1961 by A. Shammarello; 
compact, dwarf; lvs. glossy, convex; female; orig. 1953 at Shammarello 
Nurs., South Euclid, Ohio, as sdlg. of CONVEXA and as sister sdlg. to 
MENTOR DENSE. U.S. Pit. Pat. No. 2069, July 4, 1961, by A. 
Shammarello; uniform growing,- requiring a minimum of trimming; lvs. 
smaller than CONVEXA, slightly convex; female. = PYGMY. 

GREEN SPLENDOR (G. Klingaman, Amer. Nurseryman 154(12): 109. 
1981, without descr.). Angelica Nurs., Kennedy ville, Maryland, cat. 
p. 35. fall 1985-86 - introd. by Angelica Nurs.; broad pyramidal; lvs. 
glossy, slightly larger than MICROPHYLLA. 

GREEN THUMB (John Vermeulen & Son Nurs., Neshanic Sta., New 
Jersey, cat. p. 15. fall 1955) - low, spreading, compact, self-branching, 
grows rapidly while young; lvs. light, bright green; hardy. D. Wyman, 
Arnoldia 20(4):44. 1960 - dwarf; female; introd. by Vermeulen 1956. 
R. Clark, Proc. 31st Meet. Holly Soc Amer., p. 11. 1961 - Holly Soc 
Amer. Reg. No. 2-61 by Vermeulen; orig. 1945 from sdlg. obtained 1945 
and sel. 1955 by Vermeulen. 



38 



GREEN VELVET (Sheridan Nurs., Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, cat. 
p. 14. 1972) - small leaved holly sel. at Sheridan Nurs. for hardiness: 
"In slightly protected locations retains its beautiful foliage all year. 
Berries black." 

GREENPOINT (J. Oppe, Proc. 51st Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 13. 1974, 
without descr.). Orig. unknown; in J. Frorer private holly coll. 
Wilmington, Delaware, which was moved 1974 to the Scott Arboretum, 
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Broad upright, 
spreading; lvs. elliptic, tips acute, bases cuneate, margins crenulate near 
tip, dark green; male. Legitimately published here for first time by 
providing a descr. 

GREER (O. Pride Nurs., Butler, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 4. 1963-64, without 
descr.). 

GRIER (Mobjack Nurs., Mobjack, Virginia, cat. p. 6. sp. 1986, without 
descr.). Cult, in Tidewater Arboretum, Norfolk, Virginia, 1984. Habit 
coarse, dense; leaves convex; female. By providing a descr., the authors 
are the first to legitimately publish the name GRIER. 

GRUBY (K. Jarantowski, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 70:3. 1981, without 
descr.) - survived -1 1°F winter 1979-80, 1980-81 in Chicago Bot. Gard. 
without injury. 

HADLOCK (Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. p. 8. sp. 1961) - 
broadly upright, informal; lvs. slightly convex, small, olive green, 
resembles CONVEXA and HETZII; hybrid. Ibid., cat. p. 10. sp. 1968, 
as MAXWELLI - formerly called HADLOCK by Tankard Nurs. = 
MAXWELL. 

HALLIANA (Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. sp. 1961) - upright, 
resembles CONVEXA and HETZII; lvs. somewhat convex, small. 
Howell Nurs., Knoxville, Tennessee, cat. p. 4. fall 1961-sp. 1962, 
without descr. - "Spreading Howell Hybrid"; new. Boyd Nurs. Co., 
Knoxville, Tennessee, cat. p. 4. fall 1961-sp. 1962, without descr. - 
"Spreading Howell Hybrid." Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin 
form. "Spreading Howell Hybrid" (orig. 1961), a syn. of HALLIANA, 
is of different origin than SPREADING of Howell (orig. 1939) and 
should not be confused with it. 

HAMILTON HOUSE (Millcreek Nurs., Newark, Delaware, cat. 1960, 
without descr.). Millcreek Nurs., originator, discontinued production, 
since the plant was inferior. 

HATFIELD (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:30. 1953, without 
descr.) - as /. crenata X glabra; orig. by T. Hatfield, Wellesley, 
Massachusetts; orig. pit. was named HATFIELDI. Wyman's Gdn. 
Center, Framingham, Massachusetts, cat. p. 12. 1956, as /. hatfieldi - 
upright; lvs. glossy. G. Eisenbeiss, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4):324. 1970, 
without descr. - W. Kosar determined it to be a cv. of/, crenata and not 
an interspecific hybrid. Introd. as /. hatfieldi by Framingham Nurs., 
Framingham, Massachusetts, 1940-41. 



39 



HAYDEN (J. Floyd, Jr., Holly Evaluation at the Hort. Gdn. of Clemson 
University, South Carolina Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 1050:14. Feb. 1974, as 
HAYDENI) - pyramidal, upright; grows 4-6 ft tall; good durable holly; 
good green foliage; withstands pruning well; female. Sdlg. sel. by P. 
Hayden, Athens Nurs., Athens, Georgia. By correcting the orthography, 
the authors are the first to legitimately publish the name HAYDEN. 

HEASLEYI (Heasley's Nurs., Butler, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 6. fall 1960-sp. 
1961) - dwarf. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 

HELLER GREEN CUSHION (Alfred Teufel Nurs., Portland, Oregon, cat. 
p. 7. 1966-67) - an improved form of HELLERI, said to be even more 
attractive in habit and foliage. Named after HELLERI and 
KINGSVILLE GREEN CUSHION, the name HELLER GREEN 
CUSHION is illegitimate, since it would create confusion with the 
two preceding names. = ? KINGSVILLE GREEN CUSHION, 
? KINGWOOD GREEN CUSHION. 

f. helleri (A. Rehder, Jour. Arnold Arb. 20(4):417. 1939). Obviously this 
plant of gdn. origin is a clone and accordingly is reduced in rank to cv. 
= HELLERI. 

HELLERI (Bay State Nurs., North Abington, Massachusetts, cat. p. 20. 
1934) - dwarf, dense, spreading; lvs. grayish green; hardy. A. Rehder, 
Jour. Arnold Arb. 20(4):417. 1939, as f. helleri - lvs. small, elliptic; 
found in 1925 among sdlgs. of/, crenata by Joseph Heller, manager of 
Newport Nurs., Newport, Rhode Island. Idem, Bibl. Trees and Shrubs, 
p. 402. 1949, cited the following nurs. as sources of HELLERI: 
Verkade's Nurs., Wayne, New Jersey, cat. p. 13. 1936; W. Craig 
[location undetermined], price-list, p. 31. 1937, F. & F. Nurs., [New 
Jersey], cat. p. 17. 1937; and Bay State Nurs., [North Abington, 
Massachusetts], cat. p. 21. 1937. G. Graves, Amer. Nurseryman 
88(5):22. 1948 - introd. about 1936 by W. Craig. D. van Gelderen, 
Dendroflora 8:33. 1971 - unsupported claim of orig. 1943. Since its 
introd. this female cv. has achieved great acclaim for its dwarf, formal, 
mound shape habit, and it is often used as the standard for comparing 
other dwarf clones of /. crenata. Young plants apparently do not flower. 
= f. helleri Rehder. 

HELLERI MUTATION (Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 7. 
1970-71, without descr.). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. = 
TEE DEE. 

HETA (H. van de Werken et al., Proc. Southern Nurs. Assoc. Res. Conf., 
13th Annual Rpt., p. 78. 1985, without descr). This name may be a 
misspelling of HETZII. 

HETZII (B. Boom, Benaming, Geschiedenis en Kenmerken Van Een 
Aatal Hootehtige Planten 11:127. 1959 and idem., Nedrl. Dendr., 4th ed., 
p. 337. 1959) - plant obtained from Fairview Evergreen Nurs., Fairview, 
Pennsylvania, cat. 1946; similar to CONVEXA; orig. 1943 by Fairview 
Nurs. Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:30. 1953, without descr. - 



40 



sel. 1943 and introd. 1951 by C. Hetz. T. Dilatush, Holly Soc. Amer. 
Let. 4:2. 1954 - fast growing; lvs. convex, larger than CONVEXA; 
putative hybrid of CONVEXA X ROTUNDIFOLIA; sel. about 1940 by 
C. Hetz, Fairview Nurs.; noted for good hardiness. Upright spreading; 
female. (Rovex Hybrid Group). = ? CONVEXA MICROPHYLLUS, 
GLOBOSA ROTUNDIFOLIA, GLOBOSA ROTUNDIFOLIA HETZII, 
REFLEXA SUPREME. 

HIGH LIGHT (J. Feucht, Proc. 37th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 5. 1964) - 
conical-columnar; lvs. small elliptic, strongly crenate, with short 
internodes giving a texture like boxwood, and with distinct difference in 
color between new and old lvs. for which the cultivar was named; 
discov. at the National Arb. 1956 by W. Kosar as a branch mutation on 
MICROPHYLLA; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 2-64 by W. Kosar. H. 
Hyland, USDA Plant Inventory 174:243. 1969 - NA 16476, PI 316588. 
Male; habit conical-columnar; discovered, named, and introd. 1966 by 
W. Kosar. 

HIGHLANDER (R. Clark et al., Proc. 29th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 4. 
1960) - upright, rapid grower; lvs. dark green, very hardy; male; orig. 
from a block of CONVEXA sdlgs. at Norman H. Cole Nurs., Bluefield, 
West Virginia; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 16. 1960 by W. Frierson. U.S. 
Pit. Pat. No. 2272 issued to N. Cole on Aug. 6, 1963 - broadly pyramidal; 
more upright than CONVEXA; lvs. similar to MICROPHYLLA but 
darker green and not as pointed; requires little or no trimming to 
maintain habit; cold and wind resistant at -20°F. Discov. by N. Cole as a 
mutation of CONVEXA in his nursery at Springville, Tazwell County, 
Virginia. Date of orig. unkn. but patent application dated 1961. 

HILLIER (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:31. 1953, without descr.) 
- orig. 1917 in The Netherlands, introd. into U.S. about 1920 by 
Boulevard Nurs., Newport, Rhode Island; orig. spelling may have been 
HILLERI or HILLIERI. 

HISTORYLAND UPRIGHT (Historyland Nurs., Montrose, Virginia, cat. 
p. 9. June 1, 1988 to June 1989, without descr.). 

HONEYCOMB (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. p. 2. fall 
1975, without descr.). Sel. and named by N. Cannon, Greenwood, 
Delaware, from 400 sdlgs. grown from seed distrib. 1965 by USDA Pit. 
Introd. Sta., Glenn Dale, Maryland. Lvs. light green broad elliptic to 
broad elliptic ovate, crenate near apex, petioles 6 mm long; fr. yellow. 
Sister sdlg. to BUTTERBALL, FORTY NINER, IVORY, IVORY 
HALL, IVORY TOWER, SIR ECHO, STARGLOW. (Watanabeana 
Group). Legitimately published here for the first time by providing a 
description. 

HOOGENDORN (J. Vermeulen & Sons, Neshanic Sta., New Jersey, cat. 
Sept. 1967) - low bushy, compact. = COMPACTA of Vermeulen, 
COMPACTA HOOGENDORN of Vermeulen. 

HORIZONTALS (A. Shammarello & Son Nurs., South Euclid, Ohio, cat. 



41 



1964) - dwarf, compact, prostrate, branches to ground, slow growing; 
lvs. smooth, dark green; introd. by Shammarello. Illegitimate, since 
name is in Latin form. 

HOWARD (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 20. fall 1956-sp. 
1957) - branches slightly ascending; lvs. obovate-oblong, slightly 
convex, very dark green. Male. (Bennett Hybrid Group). Misspelled as 
HOWARDI. Illegitimate, since the name /. opaca HOWARD has 
priority. = HOWARD COMPACTA, HOWARD'S COMPACT. 

HOWARD COMPACTA (Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, cat. 
p. 4. 1966-67) - medium heavy growth rate, dense, branches slightly 
ascending; lvs. convex, very dark green. Illegitimate, since part of the 
name, HOWARD, has already been used as a cv. name and since part of 
the name is in Latin form. (Bennett Hybrid Group). = HOWARD, 
HOWARD'S COMPACT. 

HOWARD'S COMPACT Both HOWARD of Tingle and HOWARD 
COMPACTA of Robbins are considered to be the same plant. 
HOWARD of Tingle is illegitimate by priority of/. X opaca 
HOWARD. HOWARD COMPACTA of Robbins is illegitimate 
because part of the name is in Latin form. To arrive at a legitimate name 
for this plant, the orthography of the Robbins' name HOWARD 
COMPACTA was changed to HOWARD'S COMPACT. = 
HOWARD, HOWARD COMPACT, HOWARDI. 

HUNT SELECTION New name. Vigorous upright spreading; stems light 
yellowish green; lvs. dark green, elliptic; orig. as sdlg. sel. late 1920's 
from Le-Mac Nurs., Hampton, Virginia; sel. by Jacque LeJendre and 
again by W. L. Hunt. Published here for the first time. 

IMPERIAL (Atlantic Nurs., Dix Hills, New York, advert, in 1988 
Composite Stock List, Long Island Growers Guide, Riverhead, New 
York. p. 70. 1988, without descr.). 

INNA (Peter Vendergissen, Cottage Hill Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. 
1989) - more compact form of BENNETT'S COMPACTA [= 
BENNETT'S COMPACT]. Illegitimate because of inadequate descr. 

INTEGRIFOLIA (Kibble and Clare Nurs., Ascot, Berkshire, England, cat. 
p. 35. 1956) - very dwarf and slow growing. Female. Illegitimate, since 
the name /. aquifolium INTEGRIFOLIA has priority. 

IRENE PETERS (J. Feucht, Proc. 37th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 6. 
1964) - mound-shaped; lvs. with medium-fine texture; male; sdlg. 
discov. 1959 at Arie Peters Nurs., Skilman, New Jersey; Holly Soc. 
Amer. Reg. No. 5-64 by Arie Peters. 

IVORY (E. Hemming, Amer. Nurseryman 150(1 1):50. 1979, without 
descr., as another yellow-berried cultivar). = ? IVORY HALL or 
? IVORY TOWER. 

IVORY HALL (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. sp. 1973, 
without descr.). G. Eisenbeiss & T. Dudley, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 48;8. 
1974 - fast growing, compact, spreading; lvs. typical; fr. ivory color, 



42 



late ripening; sdlg. sel. from an F 2 sibling population of PI 231984, 
/. crenata f. watanabeana; sel., named, and introd. by N. Cannon; 
Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 3-74 by N. Cannon. Sister sdlg. to 
BUTTERBALL, FORTY NINER, HONEYCOMB, ? IVORY, 
IVORY TOWER, SIR ECHO, STARGLOW. (Watanabeana Group). 
= ? IVORY. 

IVORY TOWER (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. sp. 1973, 
without descr.). G. Eisenbeiss & T. Dudley, Holly Soc. Amer. Holly 
Let. 48:8. 1974 - fast growing upright; lvs. typical; fr. ivory color, late 
ripening; sdlg. sel. from F 2 sibling population of/, crenata f. 
watanabeana and designated as USDA PI 231984; sel., named, and 
introd. by N. Cannon; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 4-74 by N. Cannon. 
Sister sdlg. to BUTTERBALL, FORTY NINER, HONEYCOMB, 
IVORY HALL, SIR ECHO, STARGLOW. (Watanabeana Group). 
= ? IVORY, ? IVORY UPRIGHT. 

IVORY UPRIGHT (F. Galle, Ortho Lawn & Garden Book, p. 6. 1978) - 
yellow fr. Probably a sel. by Cannon. Illegitimate, since descr. 
inadequate. (Watanabeana Group). = ? IVORY TOWER. 

J. E. T. (Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. p. 2. summer 1966) - 
broad columnar, dense, shapes easily with minimum of pruning; lvs. 
roundish, good size; discov. at Tankard Nurs. by J. Tankard, Jr., and 
named for him. 

JAPONICA (W. Duff & Son, West Craig Nurs., Forfar, Scotland, cat. 
p. 1 1. 1960, without descr.) - dwarf. Illegitimate, since the name is in 
Latin form. 

JERSEY PINNACLE (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Jour. Holly Soc. 
Amer. 3(1):32. 1985) - upright, compact, vigorous; lvs. dark green, 
glossy, elliptic; male; has survived -13°F; hybrid of GREEN LUSTRE 
X JOHN NOSAL produced at Rutgers — The State University, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, by E. Orton, Jr.; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 
12-84 by E. Orton, Jr. 

JOHN NOSAL (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Holly Let. 25:17. 1965, 
without descr. growing at Rutgers — The State University, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey). G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Proc. 47th Meet. 
Holly Soc. Amer. p. 23. 1970 - dwarf, columnar, fastigiate branching; 
lvs. very small, elliptic to oval, entire or with 1-3 fine crenations on 
each side; male; discov. 1939 as a chance sdlg. by J. Nosal at Nosal's 
Holly Nurs., Little Neck, Long Island, New York; introd. 1957; Holly 
Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 7-70 by M. Nosal, Calverton, New York. Male 
parent of DWARF PAGODA and GREEN DRAGON. = JOHN 
NASH. 

var. kanehirae Yamamoto (Y. Yamamoto, Suppl. Icon. Plant. Formosana 
1, p. 31, fig. 1. 1925) - described as being similar to /. crenata [var. 
crenata] but differs from it by having larger spathulate lvs. that are 
minutely crenate-serrate. In 1987 T. Yamazaki (Jour. Japanese Bot. 



43 



62(6): 191) concluded that /. crenata var. mutchagara (Makino) Ohwi 
(Bull. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33:78. 1953), based on /. mutchagara Makino 
(Bot. Mag. Tokyo 27:75, fig. 2A, 1913), was convarietal with /. crenata 
var. kanehirae Yamamoto. However, Yamazaki indicated that his 
infraspecific taxon was not a var. of/, crenata, but rather, based on 
morphology and geographical distribution (Islands of Amami Oshima, 
Ryukyus and Taiwan) of var. kanehirae (including var. mutchagara), 
should be included in /. maximowicziana Loesener as /. maximowicziana 
var. kanehirae (Yamamoto) Yamazaki. This view is accepted here. 
Some of the pertinent synonyms of /. maximowicziana var. kanehirae 
(Yamamoto) Yamazaki are: /. mutchagara Makino (1913), /. crenata 
var. kanehirae Yamamoto (1925), /. kanehirae (Yamamoto) Koidzumi 
(Bot. Mag. Tokyo 43:389. 1929), /. triflora var. kanehirae (Yamamoto) 
Hu (Jour. Arnold Arb. 34:151. 1953), /. mutchagara (Makino) 
Masamune (Transact. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 25:253. 1935), /. crenata 
var. mutchagara (Makino) Ohwi (1953), and /. maximowicziana var. 
mutchagara (Makino) Hatusima (Flora Ryukyus, 2d ed., p. 884. 1975). 
There is no need to question the assignment, in this case the 
recombination of var. kanehirae to /. maximowicziana, as it is a 
taxonomic judgment made by a Japanese specialist. The question does 
arise, however, about why /. maximowicziana var. kanehirae 
(Yamamoto) Yamazaki (1987) has nomenclatural priority over 
/. maximowicziana var. mutchagara (Makino) Hatusima (1975). The 
"International Code of Botanical Nomenclature" (1988) rules that a 
name (published at any given rank) has priority when it is validly 
published at the earliest date. At the rank of variety, (var.) kanehirae 
was first validly published by Yamamoto in 1925. It does not matter 
that it was assigned to /. crenata at that time. At the rank of variety, 
mutchagara was first used by Ohwi in 1953. Again, it does not matter 
that Ohwi's application was as a variety of/, crenata. Accordingly, var. 
kanehirae (1925) has undeniable priority over var. mutchagara (1953). = 
/. maximowicziana var. kanehirae, I. crenata var. mutchagara (Makino) 
Ohwi, /. mutchagara Makino. 

KIIRO-FUKURIN (E. Griffith and H. Hyland, USDA Plant Inventory 
164:22. 1966, without descr.) - coll. 1956 by J. Creech from Nakada 
Nurs., Angyo, Japan; PI 236021, NA 25700; distributed to the nursery 
trade from the USDA Pit. Introd. Sta., Glenn Dale, Maryland, in 1960. 
The Romanji common name KIIRO-FUKURIN, though rendered by 
Griffith and Hyland as a cv. name, is not recognized here as a legitimate 
cultivar name, since it is a common name. This name translates to 
"yellow margin," which is not descriptive of this plant, since this plant 
has yellow spotted and streaked leaves. = ANGYO. 

KINGSVALE (A. Bartels, Gardening with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs. English 
ed. 1:161-162. 1986) - flattened, globe shaped; original pit. 4 ft tall and 
7 ft wide; lvs. less than 3/8" long; introd. 1926 by Kingsville Nurs., 



44 



Kingsville, Maryland. = KINGSVILLE DWARF, KINGSVILLE. 

KINGSVILLE (Finding List, Breeze Hill Gdns., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 
10th ed., p. 28. 1940, without descr.) - rec. from Kingsville Nurs., 
Kingsville, Maryland. Kingsville Nurs., Kingsville, Maryland, cat. p. 1. 
1941 - dwarf, compact, extremely hardy. H. Hume, Hollies, p. 105. 1953 
- grown from seed of MICROPHYLLA by W. Appleby in Baltimore, 
Maryland, about 1912; intro. by Kingsville Nurs. 1940. D. Wyman, 
Shrubs and Vines for Amer. Gdns., rev. ed., p. 225. 1969 - original pit. 
purchased by Hohman 1926. Illegitimate, since the originator 
subsequently changed the name of the clone to KINGSVILLE 
DWARF, a different clone from KINGSVILLE GREEN CUSHION. 
= KINGSVILLE DWARF, KINGSVALE, not / cornuta 
KINGSVILLE. 

KINGSVILLE DWARF (Anonymous, Proc. 74th Ann. Conv. Amer. 
Assoc. Nurserymen, p. 16. 1949) - very dwarf, compact, very twiggy, 
slightly faster growing than HELLERI; lvs. slightly larger than 
HELLERI lvs.; discov. 1912 by W. Appleby at his residence in 
Baltimore, Maryland; named and introd. 1940 by H. Hohman, 
Kingsville, Maryland; Amer. Assoc. Nurserymen Pit. Reg. No. 45 by 
H. Hohman 1948. Mound-shaped, similar to HELLERI but less formal 
branching habit; female. = KINGSVALE, KINGSVILLE. 

KINGSVILLE GREEN CUSHION (Anonymous, Proc. 77th Ann. Conv. 
Amer. Assoc. Nurserymen, 1952) - very low spreading; extremely 
compact, very twiggy, and dense; lvs. small, very dark green; hardy to 
-6°F; orig. Kingsville Nurs., Kingsville, Maryland; Amer. Assoc. 
Nurserymen Pit. Reg. No. 364 by H. Hohman 1952. Male. Thought by 
some to have orig. at McLean Nurs., Towson, Maryland. = GREEN 
CUSHION, ? HELLER GREEN CUSHION, KINGWOOD GREEN 
CUSHION. 

KINGWOOD GREEN CUSHION (A. Bartels, Gardening with Dwarf 
Trees and Shrubs, English ed. 1 : 162. 1986, without descr.). = 
KINGSVILLE GREEN CUSHION, GREEN CUSHION, ? HELLER 
GREEN CUSHION. 

KOHL'S FASTIGIATA (Hess Nurs., Wayne, New Jersey, cat. p. 2. fall 
1961-sp. 1962, without descr.). 

KUNMING (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:32. 1953, without 
descr.) - introd. about 1947 by Styer's Nurs. D. Wyman, Amer. 
Nurseryman 1 12(9): 122. 1960 - open, rapid growing; young stems red; 
female. Globe shaped; lvs. dark green, medium size, but larger than 
MICROPHYLLA lvs.; sdlg. orig. about 1932; sel. and named by Styer's 
Nurs., Concordville, Pennsylvania. 

var. latifolia (W. Goldring, Garden (London) 31:129. 1887) - distinct from 
var. aureo-variegata and var. longifolia; lvs. almost twice as broad as the 
typical form. Goldring is the usual reference cited for var. latifolia, but 
not the earliest. A. Lavelle, Arb. Segrezianum, p. 44. 1877, without 



45 



descr. St. John's Nurs., Worcester, England, cat. p. 48. 1893, without 
descr. Andorra Nurs., Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 27. 1903 - 
more upright growth than type; lvs. oblong, glossy green. Ibid., cat. p. 
17. 1910 - broad leaved, with var.fortunei as separate entry. A. Rehder, 
Man. Cult. Trees & Shrubs, p. 544. 1927 - lvs. elliptic or obovate to 
oblong-obovate; with syns. of var. elliptica Hort. and var. major Hort. 
Hillier & Sons, Winchester, England, cat. 1940 - of stronger growth; lvs. 
a little wider; with syns. of var. elliptica and var. major. B. Boom, 
Nederl. Dendr., 3d ed., p. 310. 1949 - lvs. large; with var. elliptica Hort. 
and var. major Hort. in syn. Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:32. 
1953, without descr.; with syns. of var. elliptica Siebold, var.fortunei 
Hort. ex Miquel, ? var. globosa, and var. rotundifolia Maximowicz. 
H. Hume, Hollies, p. 106. 1953 - compact shrub; lvs. curved, elliptic to 
elliptic-oblong, base and tip obtuse; male; frequently sold as 
ROTUNDIFOLIA [in U.S. nurseries]. If all the synonyms reported 
above were originally intended at the clonal level, now considered 
cultivar rank, they might all equate to LATIFOLIA. But descriptive data 
are inadequate or absent, and authentic material for comparison is 
lacking. Considering the diverse sources, the time periods, and the 
confusion with ROTUNDIFOLIA, it seems dubious and foolhardy to 
equate all of the above synonymy to LATIFOLIA at the cultivar rank. 
There are many different clones that have been named LATIFOLIA. 
Since all of the material cited by the refs. is of cult, orig., the name var. 
latifolia is not acceptable at bot. rank. See entries of f. latifolia, 
LATIFOLIA, var. rotundifolia, ROTUNDIFOLIA, var. major, and 
MAJOR. Because of the lack of acceptable data to the contrary, 
var. latifolia Goldring = LATIFOLIA of some authors, f. latifolia 
(Goldring) Rehder, /. elliptica Siebold, var. elliptica Hort., l.fortunei 
(cf. G. Nicholson). 

latifolia (Goldring) Rehder (A. Rehder, Biblio. Trees & Shrubs, p. 402. 
1949, as a change in rank from var. latifolia (Goldring)) - syn. with var. 
latifolia Goldring, var. major Nicholson, ? var. rotundifolia 
Maximowicz, l.fortunei Hort. ex Miquel, /. elliptica Siebold ex Miquel. 
S.-y. Hu, Jour. Arnold Arb. 30:323. 1949 - broad-leaved form; lvs. 
oblong or elliptic, mature lvs. 13/16"-1 3/16" long, 3/8"-5/8" wide, apex 
obtuse or subacute. G. Krussmann, Handb. Laub., 1st ed., Fascicle Pub., 
2:23. Dec. 1960, as a cv. - shrub to 1.5 m tall, very compact, upright; lvs. 
flat, elliptic to longish, 2-3.8 cm long, narrow obtuse tip, with syn. of 
l.fortunei Miquel. W.J. Bean, Trees & Shrubs Hardy Brit. Isles, 8th ed., 
2:440. 1973 - small tree, occasionally to 20 ft; lvs. oval, boxlike, 1/2"- 
1 1/4" long, l/4"-5/8" wide, teeth minute, rounded; fr. 1/4" in dia. on 
pedicels that are 1/4" or less in length; introd. by R. Fortune from cult. 
This descr. is somewhat dubious, since it is identical to the descr. used 
for /. crenata var. major in W.J. Bean, Trees & Shrubs Hardy Brit. Isles, 
4th ed., 1:645. 1925. In Bean's 8th ed., no reference or citation is made 
to his 4th ed.; and var. major is not listed as a syn. of or a different clone 



46 



from f. latifolia, nor are other synonyms given. While Render' s/orm<2 
created a convenient grouping for many names, it is dubious at botanical 
rank, since it is based on diverse cultivated material. = /. elliptica 
Siebold, var. elliptica Hort., I.fortunei Hort., LATIFOLIA, var. latifolia 
Goldring. 

LATIFOLIA (B. Boom, Nederl. Dendr., 4th ed., p. 337. 1959, as a cv. 
distinct from ROTUNDIFOLIA) - lvs. 2-4 cm long, larger and more 
rounded than MICROPHYLLA and CONVEXA; origin Japan; introd. 
1865 to Netherlands by Siebold; with elliptica Hort. and major Hort. in 
syn. S.-y. Hu, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4): 199. 1970, as a cultivar - lvs. 
larger, 3/4"- 1 1/2" long, obtuse at apex; much cult, in Europe and U.S. 
G. Krussmann, Handb. Laub., 1st ed., Fascicle Pub., 2:23. Dec. 1960 as 
a cv., ibid., 2d ed., 2: 183. 1977 - Krussmann changed back to f. latifolia 
(Goldring) Rehder. D. Wyman, Amer. Nurseryman 1 12(9): 1 17. 1960, 
and idem, Arnoldia 20(7):46. 1960 - vigorous, upright to 20 ft tall; lvs. 
large, glossy, 1 1/2" long, l/2"-5/8" wide; with syn. of fortunei, 
grandifolia, macrophylla, major, rotundifolia. D. van Gelderen, 
Dendroflora 1971(8):33. 1971 - as cv., with ROTUNDIFOLIA in syn. 
H. Hume, Hollies, p. 106. 1953 - frequently cataloged by [U.S.] 
nurseries as ROTUNDIFOLIA. R. Clark, Hortus Third, p. 591. 1973 - 
with FORTUNEI in syn. From the above references and from 
observations of plants labeled LATIFOLIA in the U.S. Nurseries, it is 
apparent that many more than one clone have been named LATIFOLIA. 
Many descriptions are missing or inadequate, origins are unknown, and 
authentic materials are not extant. Some of the reported synonymy is 
dubious and contradictory. Until a type specimen or authentic material is 
determined or designated for this cultivar, the identity of LATIFOLIA 
must remain confused. At cultivar rank the name LATIFOLIA is 
illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium LATIFOLIA has priority. = 
/. elliptica Siebold ex Miquel, ? var. elliptica Hort. from Boom, 
? I.fortunei Hort. ex Miquel, FORTUNEI, war. fortunei Hort., var. 
globosa Wister, ? GRANDIFOLIA, ? var. latifolia Goldring, ? f. latifolia 
(Goldring) Rehder, ? MACROPHYLLA, ? MAJOR, ? var. major 
Nicholson, ? ROTUNDIFOLIA, ? var. rotundifolia Maximowicz. 

LAUREL LAKE (Laurel Lake Gdns. and Nurs., Salemburg, North 
Carolina, cat. p. 13. 1964, without descr.). Introd. by Laurel Lake Nurs.; 
upright, broad pyramidal; lvs. dark green, tips obtuse to rounded, bases 
obtuse; female. Legitimately published here for the first time by 
providing a descr. 

LAURIFOLIA (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 25:17. 1964, without 
descr.) - rec. from Kingsville Nurs., Kingsville, Maryland, by Rutgers — 
The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. E. Orton, Jr., in 
Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 60:28. 1978, without descr. - as "Deverman's" 
LAURIFOLIA. 

LINDLEYANA (Lindley Nurs., Greensboro, North Carolina, cat. p. 12. 



47 



fall 1946-sp. 1947) - broader than regular type. D. Wyman, Arnoldia 
20(7):46. 1960 - dense; but differs little from other good sel. Male. 

LISA New name. Sdlg. orig. named by Athens Nurs., Athens, Georgia. 
Dense, rounded; lvs. dark green, ovate to broadly elliptic, tips obtuse, 
bases cuneate. Published here for the first time. 

LITTLE GEM (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 22. fall 1961- 
sp. 1962) - broader than tall, good for low positions. Male. 

LITTLE LEAF (Millcreek Nurs., Newark, Delaware, cat. p. 2. 1958, 
without descr.). J. Floyd, Jr., Ornamental Pit. Coll., Hort. Gdn. 
Clemson University, Clemson Agr. Exp. Sta., Clemson, South Carolina, 
Miscel. Pub. 9. 1973, as LITTLELEAF, without descr. 

LOEB (Medford Nurs., Medford, New Jersey, cat. p. 6. fall 1971- sp. 
1972, as LOEBI) - extremely compact, spreading; hardy. By correcting 
the orthography, the authors are the first to legitimately publish the 
name LOEB. 

LONGBOY New Name. Sel. and named late 1950's by Dr. W. Frierson; 
vigorous upright spreading; lvs. dark green, elliptic, tips acute, bases 
cuneate; male. By adding a descr., the authors are the first to 
legitimately publish the name LONGBOY. 

LONGFELLOW (Boulevard Nurs., Newport, Rhode Island, cat. p. 1 1. 
1940) - compact; lvs. "cleaner" and glossier; sdlg. sel. many years ago; 
all stock from original pit. This was a combined descr. with 
TENNYSON. Descriptions sorted out by D. Wyman, Arnoldia 
20(7):46. 1960 - described LONGFELLOW as a poor grower, closely 
resembling /. crenata microphylla; lvs. rather large. D. Wyman, Amer. 
Nurseryman 122(9): 123. 1960 - not as hardy as some others [in 
Boston]. Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:33. 1953, without descr. 
- orig. Holland 1917, Boulevard Nurs., Newport, Rhode Island, about 
1920. Upright, spreading; male. 

var. longifolia (A. Lavallee, Arb. Segrezianum, p. 44. 1877 - without 
descr.). W. Goldring, Garden (London) 31:129. 1887 - lvs. longer and 
narrower than type; described from cultivation. S.-y. Hu, Jour. Arnold 
Arb. 30:325. 1949, based on Goldring (1887) - mature lvs. lanceolate or 
oblong-elliptic 1-3 cm long, 4-11 mm wide, normal length 4 times or 
more the width, apex acute; cultivated Germany, Great Britain, U.S.; 
with f. longifolia (Goldring) Rehder in syn. A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. 
Dendr. Gesel. (17):161. 1908 and idem, Biblio. Trees & Shrubs, p. 402. 
1949 - in syn. to f. longifolia (Goldring) Rehder. The authors consider 
Goldring's plant a cultivar, since it was from cultivation. Later, with 
confusing and conflicting interpretations, S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 
36(1 ):49. 1957 - accepted f. longifolia (Goldring) Rehder but also 
called it a "horticultural variety"; then on p. 62 in the entry for 
KINGS VILLE [KINGSVILLE DWARF] - "a clone off. longifolia" 
and on p. 64 in the entry for MICROPHYLLA - "a clone of var. 
longifolia f. rehderiana" and in the entry for WILLOW LEAF - "a 



48 



clone off. longifolia" Finally, idem., Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4)199. 1970, 
as a cultivar, without mention of syn. of her earlier interpretations. = 
LONGIFOLIA, f. longifolia in part. 
/. longifolia (Goldring) Rehder (A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 
1908(17): 161. 1908.) - the following quotation was translated from 
German: 

lvs. narrow elliptic to lanceolate, pointed and mucronate tipped, 
sharply serrate, 1.3-3.5 cm long. According to the somewhat 
uncertain description in Garden, [Goldring (Garden 1 20: 1 29. 1 887)] , 
var. longifolia Goldring can be separated from the type [typical 
expression of /. crenata] by its narrower and longer lvs. I also 
include [in f. longifolia] a Japanese specimen Faurie 6894 and 
specimens at Kew like the typical cultivation form, having very 
small lvs. I saw a Japanese specimen of i. longifolia from Faurie 's 
No. 6894. 1 place here those specimens of Kew #1 like the typical 
cultivated form, having very small lvs. scarcely 2.5 cm. long, with 
the Japanese forms that are up to 3.5 cm. long. 
Obviously, Rehder was not naming a single clone, which we would call 
a cultivar; he was grouping a particular range of leaf lengths of taxa that 
can be considered as a valid botanical forma. Since Rehder included 
elements of wild origin in his forma, this further vindicates his forma at 
botanical rank. From our observations of numerous populations of open- 
pollinated seedling populations, we found that many named cultivars, 
and some somatic mutations, such as HIGH LIGHT, indicate that the 
narrow, pointed, sharply serrated leaf described by Rehder may occur 
randomly and in expressions fully graduated from narrowly elliptic to 
broadly lanceolate. Similar leaf patterns also occur randomly in wild 
populations. S.-y. Hu (1957) made three confusing interpretations of this 
name (see var. longifolia in this checklist). = longifolia Goldring in part. 
LONGIFOLIA (W. Goldring, Garden (London) 31:19. 1887, as var. 
longifolia) - lvs. longer and narrower than type; descr. from cult. 
A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 1908(17): 161. 1908 - [his] 
f. longifolia was based in part on var. longifolia Goldring but included 
other elements. A. Rehder, in Bailey's Standard Cyclopedia Hort. 
2:1640. 1915, listed var. longifolia Hort. - lvs. elliptic-oblong to 
lanceolate. A. Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees & Shrubs, 1st ed., p. 545. 1927, 
and idem, 2d ed., p. 551. 1940 - cited var. longifolia Goldring. A. 
Rehder, Biblio. Trees & Shrubs, p. 402. 1949 - cited f. longifolia 
(Goldring) Rehder, which he accepted as a valid botanical forma. 
However this change of rank from var. to forma does not prevent 
Goldring 's plant from being recognized as a cultivar. G. Kriissmann, 
Handb. Laub., 1st ed., Fascicle Pub., 2:23. Dec. 1960, as cv. - lvs. 
narrowly lanceolate, 3-5 cm long, 0.9 cm wide; twigs dark reddish 
brown. ? Male. S.-y. Hu made various interpretations (see var. longifolia 
in this checklist) but her last was as a cultivar. According to the literature 



49 



a valid LONGIFOLIA cultivar is conceivable, but it is exceedingly 
difficult to authenticate. = var. longifolia Goldring, var. longifolia of 
Laval lee, f. longifolia in part. 

f. longipedunculata S.-y. Hu (S.-y. Hu, Jour. Arnold Arb. 30:324. 1949, as 
a new forma) - lvs. broad; staminate cymes with peduncles 10 mm long, 
pedicels 2-3 mm long, fruiting pedicels 10-12 mm long. S.-y. Hu, Nat'l 
Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):49. 1957 - elongate peduncles; a var. probably not 
introd. to U.S. = subsp. fukasawana (Makino) Murata, var.fukasawana 
Makino. 

LOYCE NELSON (Plants Growing in Conservatories and Gdns., 
Longwood Gdns., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, p. 90. May 1965, 
without descr.). Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 13. 1966- 
67, without descr. Distinct horizontal branching, low growing, twice as 
wide as tall, not as low as REPANDENS of Dodd, but lower growing 
than EDWIN DOZIER; lvs. ovate, smaller than EDWIN DOZIER; 
male. Named for a Baptist Missionary and introd. by T. Dodd, Jr. By 
providing a descr., the authors are the first to legitimately publish the 
name LOYCE NELSON. 

LUSTGARTEN New name. (Bair Lustgarten Nurs., Middle Island, Long 
Island, New York, cat. p. 43. fall 1976-sp. 1977, as LATIFOLIA 
Lustgarten strain) - upright; lvs. deep green, elegant; best evergreen 
hedge; developed at Bair Lustgarten Nurs. about 1946; "the hardiest of 
any Ilex" The authors are the first to publish the name LUSTGARTEN, 
a reformulation of the originator's designation "LATIFOLIA Lustgarten 
strain." 

LUTEA (Foxborough Nurs., Street, Maryland, cat. p. 8. fall 1986, without 
descr.). 

var. luteo-variegata Regel (E. Regel, Gartenflora 13:37, 39. 1886) - lvs. 
small, curved, obovate-oval, crenate, golden yellow-speckled; cult, in the 
Czar's Garden, St. Petersburg [Leningrad], Russia, from plants sent from 
Japan by C. Maximowicz in 1863. C. Maximowicz, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. 
Petersbourgh 29(3):35. 1881 - the only record found indicated that plants 
of /. crenata with yellow or white variegated-leaves were cultivated in 
Japanese gardens [which he probably saw during his visit to Japan 
1861-63]. Apparently Maximowicz did not name any of these plants. 
A. Rehder in L. Bailey, Stand. Cyclop. Hort. 2:1640. 1915 - lvs. spotted 
yellow, obovate; with var. aureo-variegata Hort. in syn. Idem, Man. 
Cult. Trees and Shrubs, 1st ed., p. 544. 1927 - lvs. spotted yellow; with 
var. aureo-variegata Goldring and var. variegata Bean in syn. Idem, 
Man. Cult. Trees and Shrubs, 2d ed., p. 550. 1940 - same as 1st ed., 
except Nicholson is listed instead of Bean as author citation for 
variegata. We note that Rehder published a rank change of Regel 's var. 
luteo-variegata to f. luteo-variegata in 1908 (see f. luteo-variegata 
(Regel) Rehder in this checklist). Rehder cited luteo-variegata as a var. 
in Bailey's Stand. Cyclop. Hort. 2:(1915) and in the 1st (1927) and 2d 



50 



(1940) editions of his Man. Cult. Trees and Shrubs. Rehder later 
changed var. luteo-variegata back to forma in his Biblio. Trees and 
Shrubs, 1949. B. Boom, Nederl. Dendr., 3d ed., p. 310. 1949 - lvs. 
golden flecked; with syns. of var. aureo-vahegata Goldring and var. 
fortunei Hort. Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:33. 1953, without 
descr. - with syn. of var. vahegata Nicholson. Illegitimate as a botanical 
var., since the plant orig. from cult. = LUTEO-VARIEGATA. See 
LUTEO-VARIEGATA for full syn. 

f. luteo-variegata (Regel) Rehder (A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 
1908(17): 161. 1908 - reduced var. luteo-variegata Regel in rank to bot. 
forma; lvs. rounded, oval; a mutation from var. typica, not from 
f. vahegata G. Nicholson, Kew Hand-List 1894. C. Schneider, Illus. 
Handb. Laubholzkunde, Suppl. 2:1023. 1912 - hardly different from 
f. microphylla except gold variegated (from Rehder); listed by H. Hesse 
Nurs., Werner, Germany; with var. aureo-variegata Hort. in syn. 
T. Loesener, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 1919(28): 1919, without descr. - 
cultivated form from Japan. A. Rehder, Biblio. Trees & Shrubs, p. 402. 
1949, with the following in syn.: var. luteo-variegata Regel, var. aureo- 
variegata Goldring, var. vahegata Nicholson, I. fortunei f. aureo- 
variegata Hort. ex Schelle. S.-y. Hu, Jour. Arnold Arb. 30:325. 1949 - 
listed the same syn. as Rehder did in 1949. Idem, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 
36(1 ):49, 62. 1957 - a "horticultural form" with elliptic or lanceolate 
lvs., variegated with yellow. Apparently Hu (1957) did not consider 
f. luteo-variegata to be a cultivar, since she indicated GOLDEN 
VARIEGATED was a clone off. luteo-variegata. B. Boom, Nederl. 
Dendr., p. 310. 1949 - lvs. golden flecked; with var. aureo-variegata 
Goldring and var. fortunei Hort. in syn. Dubious as a bot. forma, since 
the plant orig. from cult. = LUTEO-VARIEGATA. See LUTEO- 
VARIEGATA for complete list of syn. 

LUTEO-VARIEGATA (B. Boom, Nederl. Dendr., 4th ed., p. 337. 1959, 
as cv.) - dwarf; lvs. less than 2 cm long, like LATIFOLIA but yellow 
spotted; orig. Russia 1864. E. Regel, in Gartenflora 13:37, 39. 1886, 
named this pit. var. luteo-variegata and stated that this plant was sent 
from Japan to Russia by Maximowicz in 1863. Boom was the first to 
publish the name LUTEO-VARIEGATA at cv. rank, which he based 
on var. luteo-variegata Regel. He also changed var. aureo-variegata 
Goldring in 1959 from a syn. of luteo-variegata, as it is indicated in his 
1949 ed., and gave it a cv. rank, separating these two cvs. by leaf size, 
stating that LUTEO-VARIEGATA has lvs. less than 2 cm and 
AUREO-VARIEGATA has lvs. more than 2 cm long. F. Meyer, Pit. 
Expl. Ornamentals, USDA ARS 34-9, p. 144. 1959 - lvs. small, 
narrowly elliptic, some occasionally blotched yellowish; PI 242998, 
obtained from Royal Bot. Gard. Kew 1958. S.-y. Hu, Amer. Hort. Mag. 
49(4): 199. 1970 - lvs. elliptic or lanceolate, variegated or blotched with 
yellow; introd. to U.S. from Royal Bot. Gard. Kew in 1957 by F. 



51 



Meyer. G. Kriissmann, Handb. Laub., 1st ed., Fascicle Pub., 2:23. 1960 
- lvs. 2 cm long, gold spotted; found in Russia 1869 [obviously Regel's 
plant]; AUREO-VARIEGATA based on Goldring's var. was given as a 
separate cultivar. R. Clark in Hortus Third, p. 591. 1976 - lvs. mottled 
yellow; with syn. of VARIEGATA. It appears reasonable that LUTEO- 
VARIEGATA as a cultivar is Maximowicz's plant from Japan which 
Regel named var. luteo-variegata. LUTEO-VARIEGATA 
(Maximowicz's introd.) did exist and was probably a single clone easily 
identified in Regel's time. Many different names have been published 
(see syn.) involving the name luteo-variegata but with inadequate descr., 
and its variable ranks and syn. resulted in confusion. This confusion, 
along with the absence of authentic plants, makes current possible 
identification of LUTEO-VARIEGATA and the other involyed names 
dubious. However, LUTEO-VARIEGATA as a clone unquestionably 
did exist. (Variegated Group). = var. luteo-variegata Regal, ? f. luteo- 
variegata (Regel) Rehder, var. major of Schelle, ? MICROPHYLLA 
AUREO-VARIEGATA, VARIEGATA Bean, var. variegata Bean, var. 
variegata Dallimore, var. variegata Nicholson, not AUREO- 
VARIEGATA of Boom. 

LUTHER COPELAND New name. Sel. and named and introd. 1985 by 
Tom Dodd, Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama. Compact, globose, 
slow growing; lvs. broadly elliptic; male. Published here for the first 
time. 

MACROPHYLLA (J. Conder, Landscape Gardening in Japan, 2d ed., 
p. 112. 1912, without descr., as macrophylla) - published with Romanji 
name "Oba-tsuge." Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium 
MACROPHYLLA (orig. 1889) has priority. Unable to equate to 
MACROPHYLLA of Moon. 

MACROPHYLLA (Lindley Nurs., Greensboro, North Carolina, cat. p. 12. 
fall 1946-sp. 1947) - medium growth; more spreading, and with lvs. 
larger and broader [than typical for the species]; female. Possibly 
equivalent to MACROPHYLLA of Wister and Wyman. Unable to 
equate to MACROPHYLLA of Conder. Illegitimate by priority of 
/. aquifolium MACROPHYLLA. 

MACROPHYLLA (William Moon Nurs., Morrisville, Pennsylvania, cat. 
1910) - lvs. a little larger than typical for/, crenata. Illegitimate, since 
the name /. aquifolium MACROPHYLLA (orig. 1889) has priority. 
Unable to equate to MACROPHYLLA of Conder. 

MACROPHYLLA (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:34. 1953, 
without descr.) - said to be grown at Brownell Farms, Milwaukie, 
Oregon, and The Morris Arb., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. D. Wyman, 
Arnoldia 20(7):46. 1960, without descr. - as macrophylla; it is probably a 
syn. of var. latifolia. Wyman's suggestion that macrophylla is a syn. of 
var. latifolia is speculative, since the identification of his var. latifolia is 
questionable. MACROPHYLLA of Wister possibly equates to 



52 



MACROPHYLLA of Moon, but not to MACROPHYLLA of Conder or 
Lindley. Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium MACROPHYLLA 

has priority. 

MAGDA (Cartwright Nurs., Collierville, Tennessee, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 1 19(2):25. 1964, without descr.). Sdlg. orig., named, and 
introd. late 1950's by Cartwright Nurs., Collierville, Tennessee; dense 
upright rounded; lvs. dark green broadly elliptic to obovate; male. The 
authors are the first to legitimately publish the name MAGDA by 
providing a description. 

var. major (G. Nicholson, Kew Hand-List Trees & Shrubs 1:61. 1894, 
without descr.). L. Spaeth, Baumschule, Berlin, Germany, cat. p. 90. 
1901 - larger lvs. than var. fortune */. W. Dallimore, Kew Hand-List 
Trees & Shrubs, 2d ed., p. 89. 1902, without descr. - syn. with 
I.fortunei Hort., not l.fortunei Lindley. Idem, Holly Yew & Box, 
p. 121. 1908 - very wide lvs.; has been called I.fortunei; photo of major 
in fig. 6 in Dallimore does not represent major as described on p. 121; 
probably the wrong plant was photographed. W.J. Bean, Trees & 
Shrubs Hardy Brit. Isles., 1st ed., 1:645. 1914, and 7th ed., 2:645. 1951 

- occasionally to 20 ft; lvs. 1/2"- 1 1/2" long, l/4"-5/8" wide, oval, box- 
like, minutely round toothed; fr. black; regarded by some as Thunberg's 
type of the species; with syn. of/, elliptica Hort. Idem, Trees & Shrubs 
Hardy Brit. Isles, 8th ed., 2:440. 1973 - as syn. under f. latifolia 
(Goldring) Rehder with the identical description as given for var. major 
in 1st and 7th eds., with only var. latifolia Goldring listed as a syn. An 
herbarium collection labeled MAJOR in the National Arboretum and 
Arnold Arboretum Herbaria is noted as "cult. Kew No. 98, rec. 1908 
from Veitch, coll. by Bean." These specimens have round, minutely 
spinulose lvs. lacking crenation and have female flowers. A. Hill, Kew 
Hand-List Trees & Shrubs, 3d ed., p. 40. 1924, without descr. - with 
I.fortunei Hort. in syn. A. Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees & Shrubs, 1st ed., 
p. 544. 1927 and idem, 2d ed., Man. Cult. Trees & Shrubs, p. 550. 1940 

- lvs. elliptic or obovate to oblong; in syn. to var. latifolia Goldring. 

B. Boom, Nederl. Dendr., 3d ed., p. 310. 1949, without descr. - syn. of 
var. latifolia Goldring and with /. elliptica Hort.; also a syn. of var. 
latifolia; idem, 2d ed., Nederl. Dendr.; idem, 4th ed.; idem, 3d ed.; and 
idem, 5th ed. - [descr. of LATIFOLIA] lvs. to 4 cm long, oval but 
widest above the middle; introd. 1865 by Siebold from Japan; with var. 
major as a syn. of LATIFOLIA and with var. latifolia Goldring and var. 
elliptica Hort. also as syn. of LATIFOLIA. A. Rehder, Biblio. Trees & 
Shrubs, p. 412. 1949, as var. major Nicholson, without descr. - syn. of 
f. latifolia (Goldring) Rehder; with var. latifolia Goldring, var. 
rotundifolia Maximowicz, /. elliptica Hort., and I.fortunei Hort. also as 
syn. of f. latifolia. P. Synge in Chittenden, Royal Hort. Soc. Diet. Gdn. 
2d ed., 2:1045. 1956 - lvs. larger than typical; fr. 1/4" wide. D. Wyman, 
Arnoldia 20(7):42. 1960 - lvs. large, 1 1/2" long, l/2"-5/8" wide, 



53 



vigorous; in syn. of latifolia; with var.fortunei and var. rotundifolia 
also in syn. of var. latifolia. While agreement in description and 
synonymy is not consistent and descriptions are far from adequate, it 
appears possible that all the above authors were considering the same 
clone, which is listed in this checklist as MAJOR of Nicholson. In 
addition to the opinions of the various authors, their reporting also 
reflects popular usages of synonyms in their time. = MAJOR of 
Nicholson, ? f. major Schelle. 

f. major (E. Schelle in L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Hand. Laub- 
Benennung, p. 291. 1901, without descr.) - as major. - ? MAJOR of 
Nicholson. 

MAJOR (F. Meyer, USDA Pit. Expl. Ornamentals, ARS 34-9:144. 1959) - 
as cv. MAJOR; shrub 8-10 ft; lvs. elliptic to obovate, 1" long; known 
for relatively large lvs.; garden origin; PI 242179 coll. by F. Meyer at 
Royal Bot. Gdn., Edinburgh. H. Hyland, USDA Pit. Inventory 168. 
1960, without descr. - PI 276276; pit. rec. as/, latifolia MAJOR from 
Royal Bot. Gdn., Edinburgh 1960. The following description of PI 
276276 is provided as observed from living specimens: lvs. 2.5 cm 
long, 4.0 cm wide, obovate, with very rounded tips and acuminate 
bases, margins with large rounded crenations; male. That this plant is 
male and has different leaf characters separates it as a clone distinct 
from, and it is not a syn. of, MAJOR of Nicholson, var. major of Bean, 
or MAJOR of Tingle. Illegitimate by being later homonym of MAJOR 
of Nicholson. 

MAJOR (G. Nicholson, Kew Hand-List Trees & Shrubs 1:61. 1894, as 
var., without descr.). W.J. Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles, 1st ed., 
1:645. 1914 - occasionally to 20 ft, box like oval lvs. l/2"-l 1/2" long, 
l/2"-5/8" wide, minutely round toothed; fr. black. Using var. major 
Nicholson as the basionym of the name and the description above from 
Bean, the authors determined that this plant is, or at least was, a clone 
called MAJOR that should be recognized as a legitimate cultivar name, 
in spite of much synonymy to the contrary. It should be noted that the 
following synonymy is not entirely in agreement with those of the 
references cited under var. major. - 1, elliptica Hort., ? I.fortunei 
Hort., ? LATIFOLIA MAJOR, var. major Bean, var. major Boom, var. 
major Dallimore, var. major Hill, var. major Nicholson, ? f. major 
Schelle, not MAJOR of Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh or (Bennett 
Hybrid Group). 

MAJOR (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 20. fall 1956-sp. 1957) 
- slightly ascending; lvs. flat, good color; similar to ROTUNDIFOLIA 
but branches better; Bennett Hybrid. S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 
36(1 ):62. 1957 - lvs. obovate, 3/8"-7/8" long, 1/4"- 1/2" wide, base 
acute, apex round, rarely obtuse, 7-13 teeth each side; available at 
Tingle Nurs. C. Tuley, Proc. 38th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 2. 1965 - 
lvs. similar to ROTUNDIFOLIA lvs. but branches better with age. 



54 



Male. Illegitimate, since this name is a later homonym of MAJOR of 
Nicholson. It is not a synonym of MAJOR of Nicholson or of Meyer, or 
of var. major of Bean, or var. major of Dallimore, or var. major of Hill. 
(Bennett Hybrid Group). 

MAMMOUTH (G. Klingaman, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 72:8. 1982, without 
descr.). = MONMOUTH. 

MARGINATA (K. Sugimoto, New Keys Woody Pits., Japan, p. 22, 277. 
1972) - lvs. white margined. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin 
form. Description inadequate to relate this selection to any other white- 
margined clone. (Variegated Group). 

var. mariesii (Veitch ex Dallimore, Hand-List Trees and Shrubs Kew, 2d 
ed., p. 89. 1902, without descr.). W. Dallimore, Holly, Yew, & Box, 
p. 122. 1908 - very stiff, low growing; lvs. roundish, crowded. = 
MARIESII, /. mariesii Veitch ex Dallimore, f. mariesii (Bean ex 
Dallimore) Hu, /. nummularioides and var. nummularioides of Bean, 
8th ed. 

f. mariesii (S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):49. 1957, as f. mariesii Bean 
ex Dallimore) - "A horticultural variety"; lvs. crowded at ends of twigs; 
often used for dwarfing by Japanese artists; also known as var. 
nummularia Franchet & Savatier. G. Krlissmann, Handb. Laub., 1st ed., 
Fascicle Pub., 2:23. Dec. 1960, in syn. of NUMMULARIA. = 
MARIESII; /. mariesii Veitch ex Dallimore; /. nummularioides and var. 
nummularioides of Bean, 8th ed.; NUMMULARIA; var. nummularia in 
all ref. citing cult, in Europe and U.S.; not /. nummularia Franchet & 
Savatier and not var. nummularia (Franchet & Savatier) Yatabe, which 
equate to NUMMULARIA. 

MARIESII (F. Meyer, USDA ARS 34-9. p. 144. 1959, without descr., as 
MAIRESII) - in syn. of var. nummularia. Although this is the first ref. 
found for the name MARIESII at cultivar rank, the plant was 
recognized by W. Dallimore, Holly Yew & Box, p. 122. 1908, as a 
"horticultural variety." T. Dudley and G. Eisenbeiss, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. 
Gesel. 70:115-131. 1978, and idem, Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 16. 1978- 
stiff, upright, dwarf; lvs. orbicular, obscurely crenate at the tip with 1-4 
mucronate teeth on each margin; female; the clonotype is a W.J. Bean 
specimen in Kew Herbarium collected at Veitch Nurs., England (Veitch 
No. 580, 1897); Charles Maries coll. and sent this pit. to Veitch Nurs. 
about 1890 from Japan; this plant in western gardens is frequently 
misidentified as /. nummularia Franchet & Savatier and is misidentified 
at various infra-specific ranks including NUMMULARIA; the name 
nummularia at all ranks has been erroneously placed in syn. to 
MARIESII, a member of the Nummularia Group. The above Dudley 
and Eisenbeiss references contain the complex nomenclatural history. = 
/. mariesii Veitch ex Dallimore; var. mariesii Veitch ex Dallimore; 
f. mariesii (Bean ex Dallimore) Hu; /. nummularioides and var. 
nummularioides in Bean, 8th ed., not /. nummularia Franchet & Savatier 
or NUMMULARIA. 

55 



MARIGOLD GLITTERS (Clarendon Gdns. Nurs., Pinehurst, North 
Carolina, cat. 1957, without descr.). Thought to be female with yellow fr. 

MAXWELL (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 21. fall 1956-sp. 
1957) - spreading, slightly more ascending in habit than CONVEXA; 
lvs. light olive green, slightly convex; Bennett Hybrid. C. Tuley, Proc. 
38th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer. p. 2. 1965 - similar to CONVEXA in form 
but faster growing; lvs. like CONVEXA, but larger and less glossy. 
Male. (Bennett Hybrid Group). = HADLOCK. 

MENTOR DENSE (R. Clark, Proc. 28th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 11. 
1960) - sister sdlg. to GREEN PIGMY; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 
4-60 by A. Shammarello & Son Nurs. A. Shammarello & Son Nurs., 
South Euclid, Ohio, cat. p. 4. sp. 1961 - semi-dwarf, compact, numerous 
short upright branches of uniform growth; introd. for first time. Female. 
= ? DENSA, DENSE. 

MENTOR GLOSSY (R. Clark, Proc. 28th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 11. 
1960) - informal, bushy; lvs. glossy dark green, slightly larger than 
parent type; male; sdlg. orig. in 1945 at Shammarello Nurs., Holly Soc. 
Amer. Reg. No. 5-60 by A. Shammarello & Son Nurs. A. Shammarello 
& Son Nurs., South Euclid, Ohio, cat. p. 4. sp. 1961 - thickly branched at 
center, vigorous; lvs. convex; sdlg. of CONVEXA; very hardy; "our 
recent introd." 

METER BOY (E. Hemming, Amer. Nurseryman 150(1 1):50. 1979) - round 
lvs. Illegitimate, since descr. inadequate. 

MICRO SPECIAL (Phyto Ecology, Ridgely, Maryland, cat. p. 5. fall 1976- 
sp. 1977) - dwarf, semiupright; lvs. small, shiny, convex. Illegitimate, 
since part of the name is in Latin form. 

var. microphylla (C. Maximowicz ex J. Matsumura, Shokubutsu Mei-i, 
p. 149. 1895, 1897, 1900, without descr.). These appear to be the earliest 
references to the name /. crenata microphylla. No ref. by Maximowicz 
has been found. A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 17; 160. 1908, as 
f. microphylla - Rehder considered Matsumura's reference to var. 
microphylla Maximowicz dubious. A. Rehder felt that it was unlikely 
that Maximowicz would publish a new taxon for the first time without a 
description in a publication like Matsumura's. Still, Rehder did not want 
to ignore Matsumura's publication of the name var. microphylla 
Maximowicz. Later, Rehder used the rank of var. in L.H. Bailey, Stand. 
Cyclopedia Hort. 3:1640. 1915 - lvs. l/3"-l/2" long, elliptic or elliptic- 
oblong; somewhat hardier than the type [of/, crenata]. Again, Rehder 
used the rank of var. in Man. Cult. Trees & Shrubs, 1st ed., p. 545. 1927 
and in ibid., 2d ed., p. 551. 1940. However, in Biblio. Trees & Shrubs, 
p. 402. 1949, Rehder used the forma rank again. The descriptions in all 
of Rehder's references listed above are very similar. Andorra Nurs., 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 28. 1903, as var. microphylla - "Has 
been widely disseminated; we have specimens up to 7 ft tall and though 
we have watched it closely since 1882, we have never seen the foliage 



56 



discolored." Shortly after its introduction into the U.S. by C.S. 
Sargent, the plant was sent from the Arnold Arb. to Andorra Nurs. = 
f. microphylla. 

f. microphylla Rehder (A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. Gesel. 17:160. 1908, as 
forma nova) - differs in part from the type [of/, crenata] in that it is 
dense, robust, low growing, lvs. 0.8- 1.2 cm long, 0.3-0.6 cm wide, 
ovate-elliptic or narrowly elliptic, mucronate tipped, margin crenate- 
serrulate; fr. 6-7 mm in diam.; very frost hardy; grown in Arnold Arb. 
from seed coll. in Metake, Hokkaido, Japan, by C.S. Sargent 1892. 
Rehder chose to cite the Maximowicz var. name presumably from the 
Matsumura reference when changing the rank from var. to forma and 
adding a description based on Sargent's sdlgs. No other reference to or 
by Maximowicz other than Matsumura (see var. microphylla 
Maximowicz) could be found to this name (still cannot be found!). As 
discussed under var. microphylla, Rehder reluctantly used the var. name 
of Maximowicz for his new forma even though it was without a 
description. However, since he erected a new forma with a description of 
a new plant it was not merely a change in rank. Therefore "Maximowicz 
ex Matsumura" is not part of the author citation of f. microphylla. S.-y. 
Hu, Jour. Arnold Arb. 30:323. 1949 - described Rehder's f. microphylla 
[= Sargent's introductions] as native to Japan and Korea, as a dwarf, 
which does not fit Andorra's comments. Rehder did not comment on 
dwarfness. The fact that Hu (1949) associated f. microphylla with 
dwarfness may explain why she listed the dwarf plants GLASS and 
MORRIS DWARF as cultivars of f. microphylla and listed 
MICROPHYLLA, a low-growing plant, as a cultivar of var. longifolia 
f. rehderiana. S.-y. Hu, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4): 199. 1970 - again cited 
f. microphylla as a wild dwarf form, but this time she listed 
MICROPHYLLA as a cultivar of f. microphylla. While f. microphylla 
may or may not be dwarf, it is considered as an authentic botanical forma 
and not a synonym of MICROPHYLLA as accepted by other authors. 
See MICROPHYLLA, var. microphylla. 

MICROPHYLLA (Angelica Nurs., Kennedyville, Maryland, cat. p. 36. fall 
1974-sp. 75) - upright; lvs. glossy; extremely hardy; our sel. This is a 
different clone from all other MICROPHYLLA in this checklist. 
Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 

MICROPHYLLA (S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1):64. 1957, as a clone of 
var. longifolia f. rehderiana) - low compact; lvs. small, shiny, elliptic, 
acute at both ends, 1/3 "-7/8" long, 1/5 "-3/8" wide, 3-4 minute teeth on 
each side. Idem, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4): 199. 1970 - listed as a cultivar 
off. microphylla. B. Boom, Nederl. Dendr., p. 323. 1959 - lvs. 1-1.5 cm 
long, smaller than LATIFOLIA and ROTUNDIFOLIA lvs., narrowly 
oval, entire margin is crenate; introd. 1868 to Netherlands by Siebold 
with var. microphylla Maximowicz in syn. L. Chadwick, Amer. 
Nurseryman 98(12):23. 1953 - 4-7 ft tall, upright in smaller sizes, stiffly 



57 



spreading with age; lvs. l/2"-3/4" long, half as wide; female. It is not 
clear if a clone is being described in this reference. G. Krussmann, 
Handb. Laub., 1st ed., Fascicle Pub., 2:23. Dec. 1960, as a cultivar - 
low, densely branched; twigs dark brown; lvs. crowded, elliptic, very 
narrow, 0.7-1.3 cm long, 0.4-0.7 cm wide, somewhat convex at the tip, 
dark green. The descriptions provided by these authors are not reliable 
or adequate enough to separate a single clone from among many sold as 
MICROPHYLLA. Probably most of the MICROPHYLLA clones in the 
U.S. nursery trade are from the 1892 Arnold Arboretum seed, which 
represented many clones, and are not of the Siebold 1868 origin via 
Netherlands, which also probably represented several clones. In the 
U.S. nurseries, clones are usually female and vary in leaf size, vigor, 
and compactness. The orthography of cultivar names was not 
formalized until 1953, and for this reason it is impossible to accurately 
determine when the name MICROPHYLLA was first applied to a 
vegetatively propagated clone. However, clonal propagation of 
/. crenata has been extensive in the U.S. since at least the 1930's. 
While B. Boom applied the cultivar name MICROPHYLLA to a plant 
introduced in 1868, presumably referring to the Siebold introduction, 
Boom did not say if MICROPHYLLA or any other name was earlier 
applied to Siebold' s plant. The first record found of the name 
MICROPHYLLA at any rank was in 1874 when /. aquifolium 
MICROPHYLLA, now recognized as a cultivar, was named. 
Therefore, the name /. crenata MICROPHYLLA is illegitimate as a 
cultivar name in /. crenata, since /. aquifolium MICROPHYLLA has 
priority. Furthermore, it is difficult to accept MICROPHYLLA as a 
cultivar name in /. crenata, since the name has been used for such an 
ill-defined, confused, and proliferating assemblage of clones. In the 
U.S. nursery trade, there are many more different and undocumented 
clones with the name MICROPHYLLA than are discussed in this 
checklist. 

MICROPHYLLA AUREO-VARIEGATA (Herman Hesse, Weener, West 
Germany, cat. p. 143. 1959-60) - beautiful yellow variegated lvs.; very 
elegant. Amer. Wholesale Nurs., Dix Hills, New York, advert, in 1990 
Composite Stocklist, Long Island Growers Guide, Riverhead, New 
York, p. 72. 1990, without descr. - with common name "Variegated 
Upright Japanese Holly." Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form, 
and moreover all elements of the name have been previously used 
individually as cv. names for different clones in /. crenata and 
/. aquifolium. Probably not the original name. Variegated clones have 
been long known in cultivation in European and Japanese gardens. = 
? LUTEO-VARIEGATA, ? AUREO-VARIEGATA. See LUTEO- 
VARIEGATA and AUREO-VARIEGATA for complete syn. 

MICROPHYLLA COLUMNARIS (Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. 
p. 11. sp. 1973) - narrow, columnar; lvs. small. Illegitimate, since the 



58 



name is in Latin form. = MICROPHYLLA ERECTA. 
MICROPHYLLA COMPACTA (Laurel Lake Gdns. and Nurs., 

Salemburg, North Carolina, cat. p. 13. 1964, without descr.). 

Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 
MICROPHYLLA ERECTA (Gresham's Nurs., Richmond, Virginia, 

advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 125(7):37. 1967, without descr.). Tankard 

Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. p. 3. 1970-71 - narrow columnar; lvs. 

little. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. = MICROPHYLLA 

COLUMNARIS, ? MICROPHYLLA PYRAMIDALIS. 
MICROPHYLLA MACULATA (H. Copeland, Amer. Hort. Mag. 

49(4):98. 1970, without descr.). Lvs. oval to obovate, golden yellow 

blotched; female; said to have been introd. by E.H. Wilson. Illegitimate, 

since the name is in Latin form. 
MICROPHYLLA NANA (Gresham's Nurs., Richmond, Virginia, advert. 

in Amer. Nurseryman 125(7):37. 1967, without descr.). Illegitimate, 

since the name is in Latin form. 
MICROPHYLLA PROSTRATA (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 

25:17. 1965, without descr.). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin 

form. 
MICROPHYLLA PYRAMIDALIS (Gresham's Nurs., Richmond, 

Virginia, cat. p. 20. sp. 1969, without descr.). Illegitimate, since the 

name is in Latin form. = ? MICROPHYLLA ERECTA. 
MICROPHYLLA SUPREME (Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, 

cat. p. 4. 1963-64) - dense, compact, a little more globular than 

CONVEXA; lvs. very glossy, dark green; female. Illegitimate, since the 

name is in Latin form. 
MIDAS TOUCH (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Jour. Holly Soc. Amer. 

2(1):32. 1985) - slow growing, compact, spreading; lvs. narrow elliptic; 

broadly and variably variegated in different shades of yellow; male; 

hardy USDA zone 6b; branch mutation discovered by E. Orton, Jr., in 

hybrid sdlg. population from a cross made at Rutgers — The State 

University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, by Orton in 1968 off. 

watanabeana X MICROPHYLLA; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 10-84 

by E. Orton, Jr. 
MINOR (H. van de Laar, Jaarbook Proefstation voor de Booakuekerij, 

Boskoop, Netherlands, p. 213. 1970, without descr.). 
MISS MUFFET (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Proc. 47th Meet. Holly 

Soc. Amer., p. 22. 1970) - low, compact, twiggy, dwarf, mound-like; 

lvs. small, elliptic, flat; female; orig. 1955 as an open poll. sdlg. of 

CONVEXA; sister sdlg. to SENTINEL; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. 

No. 4-70 by N. Cannon. 
MOB JACK (Mobjack Nurs., Mobjack, Virginia, cat. p. 7. sp. 1986, 

without descr.). = ? MOBJACK SUPREME. 
MOBJACK SUPREME (R. Lambe and W. Wills in Proc. South. Nurs. 

Assoc. Res. Conf. 23d Ann. Rpt., p. 1 16. 1978, without descr.). = 

? MOBJACK. 

59 



MONMOUTH (Bobbink Nurs., Freehold, New Jersey, cat. p. 13. sp. 1979) 
- compact, spreading, slow growing; hardy. May have orig. many years 
before 1979. = MAMMOUTH. 

MORRIS DWARF (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 20. fall 
1956-sp. 1957) - very dwarf; lvs. small; tested at Tingle Nurs. for several 
years. S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):64. 1957 - clone of/, crenata 
f. microphylla; lvs. small, apex generally acute, sometimes obtuse. Orig. 
Morris Nurs., West Chester, Pennsylvania, before 1953. Male. 

MORRISON (H. Hopkins, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 75; 12. 1983, without 
descr.) - holly collection at Sandhills Community College, Southern 
Pines, North Carolina. 

MOUNT AMAGI (Arnold Teese & Sons, Yamina Rare Plants, 25 Moores 
Road, Monbulk, Victoria 3793, Australia, retail price list, p. 6. January 
1988, as "Mt. Amagi form," without descr.). Orig. from seed coll. in the 
wild by Arnold Teese on Mount Amagi, Honshu, Japan. Grown, sel., and 
named by Arnold Teese. Upright, very dense, and compact; lvs. dark 
green, oval, 7.0-12.7 mm long, 3.6-4.8 mm wide, bases cuneate to 
obtuse, apices obtuse with minute acumens, margins crenate on upper 
1/2; petioles 0.8-1.6 mm long; female. Descr. of the original plant was 
provided by Fred Galle during an autumn 1988 tour of Australia. By 
correcting the orthography and providing a descr., the authors are the 
first to legitimately publish the name MOUNT AMAGI. 

MOUNT HALLA New name. Sel. from the wild on Mount Halla, Cheju 
Island, Republic of Korea about 1977 by C. Miller; named and introd. by 
C. Miller. This selection has been distributed as HALLA and MT. 
HALLA. Moderate growth rate, exceptionally wide-angle branching; 
one-year-old branchlets are very thick, rigid, and uniquely taper to a 
spurlike tip; lvs. very small, lanceolate; female. By providing a descr., 
the authors are the first to legitimately publish the name MOUNT 
HALLA. = HALLA, MT. HALLA. 

MR. C (Cartwright Nurs., Collierville, Tennessee, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 130(4);34. 1969) - compact, low, horizontal grower; lvs. 
dark green. Male. 

MUFFIN (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Proc. 54th Meet. Holly Soc. 
Amer. p. 13. 1977) - low, mound shape with irregular horizontal growth, 
slow growing; branchlets with very short internodes; lvs. narrow, oblong, 
convex, glossy; male; sel. by Polly Hill from seed rec. from Japan 1965; 
named and introd. by Polly Hill; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 7-77 by 
Polly Hill. 

var. mutchagara (Makino) Ohwi (J. Ohwi, Fl. Jap., p. 733. 1953; idem, 
Bull. Sci. Mus. Tokyo. 30:78. 1953, new combination from Makino's 
rank of species, without descr.). J. Ohwi, Fl. Jap., English ed., p. 600. 
1965 - larger shrub than /. crenata, angled branches; lvs. thinner, broadly 
lanceolate to obovate-oblong, base cuneate; native of Kyushu and 
Yakushima, and Ryukyu Isles, Japan, Formosa. J. Creech, USDA Pit. 



60 



Expl. Southern Jap., ARS 34-1, p. 43. 1957, as /. mutchagara Makino - 
seed coll. 1956 by J. Creech (Creech coll. No. 659) from the wild at 
4,500 ft elev., Yakushima, Japan; tree to 15 ft; lvs. crenate; fr. black, 2-3 
in a cluster; PI 237878. This is the same plant cited in E. Griffith and H. 
Hyland, USDA Pit. Inventory 165:76. 1966, as var. mutchagara. Some 
other authors (cf. Hu, Hara & Yamazaki) do not accept Ohwi's reduction 
of /. mutchagara Makino to a var. of /. crenata. We accept a more recent 
assignment of/, crenata var. mutchagara as a syn of/, maximowicziana 
var. kanehirae. = I. maximowicziana var. kanehirae (Yamamato) 
Yamazaki, /. mutchagara Makino. 

MYRTIFOLIA (G. Malmborg, Amer. Nurseryman 135(11): 11. 1947) - 
compact; lvs. small. Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium 
MYRTIFOLIA has priority. 

MYRTIFOLIA AUREO-MACULATA (Louis de Smet Nurs., Ledeberg - 
Lez-Gand, Belgium, cat. p. 59. 1887, without descr.). Illegitimate, since 
the name / aquifolium MYRTIFOLIA AUREO-MACULATA has 
priority. 

NAKADA (T. Dudley and G. Eisenbeiss, Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 16: 14-17. 
1977; idem, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 70:127. 1978; idem, HortSci. 
13(6):709. 1978 - resembles the female clone MARIESII in habit and 
leaf, but NAKADA is slightly faster growing and has slightly larger lvs.; 
male; (Nummularia Group). Named by Dudley and Eisenbeiss for 
Nakada Nurs. Originally distributed by USDA Pit. Introd. Service, Glenn 
Dale, Maryland, as var. nummularia, PI 236233. It was redistributed in 
1978 by the U.S. National Arb. as NAKADA, NA #25701. J. Creech, 
Pit. Exploration Ornamentals in Southern Japan, USDA, ARS 34-1:39. 
1957, as var. nummularia - pit. purchased by J. Creech from Nakada 
Nurs., Angyo, Japan, 1956; PI 236233. G. Eisenbeiss & T. Dudley, 
Proc. 54th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 12. 1977 - Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. 
No. 5-77 by T. Dudley and G. Eisenbeiss. 

NANA (Daisey Hill Nurs., Newry, Ireland, cat. p. 53. 1922, without 
descr.). Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium NANA has priority. 

NANA COMPACTA (T.H. Everett, ed., cat. Hardy Trees & Shrubs New 
York Botanic Gdn., p. 54. 1942, without descr.). Illegitimate, since 
individual words of the name have been published previously as cultivar 
names of /. crenata. 

NANKING (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:35. 1953, without 
descr.) - introd. about 1947 by Styer's Nurs. D. Wyman, Amer. 
Nurseryman 1 12(9): 122. 1960 - upright, dense, rapid growing, soft 
texture; some resemblance to /. glabra; lvs. blue green; male; sdlg. orig. 
about 1932; sel. and named by Styer Nurs., Concordville, Pennsylvania. 

NATIONAL (in U.S. Pit. Pat. No. 4685. 1981 for/. X meserveae MESID 
VARIETY, without descr.). In this pit. pat. of MESID VARIETY 
mention is made that MESID VARIETY was found superior in hardiness 
to /. crenata NATIONAL. No other record has been found for /. crenata 



61 



NATIONAL. The references to /. crenata NATIONAL in this pit. pat. 
were erroneous, as a selection by this name does not exist. Possibly 
/. cornuta NATIONAL was intended. = ? / cornuta NATIONAL. 

NIGRA (C. Tuley, Proc. 38th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 2. 1965) - 
semiupright; lvs. large, slightly convex, rich green color; this plant now 
being sold in place of ROTUNDIFOLIA [at Greenbrier Farms Nurs., 
Chesapeake, Virginia]; male; (Bennett Hybrid Group). Name changed by 
Greenbrier Nurs., the originator, to ALLEN SEAY. = ALLEN SEAY. 

NIGRA UPRIGHT (C. Parkerson, Combined Proc. Intern. Pit. Propag. Soc. 
50:483. 1980, without descr.). D. Milbocker et al., Southern 
Nurserymen's Assoc, Res. Jour. 7(2):2-4. 1981, without descr.). Not the 
same plant as NIGRA, the Bennett Hybrid from Greenbrier Nursery. 
Illegitimate, since descr. is lacking and the name is in Latin form. 

NO. 400 (Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 14. 1960-61, 
without descr.). 

NOBILIS (Appalachian Nurs., Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 9. fall 
1950-sp. 1951) - upright; lvs. slightly larger than most/, crenata lvs. 
Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium NOBILIS has priority. = 
NOBLE UPRIGHT, NOBLE. 

NOBLE (Lillards Nurs., Jeffersontown, Kentucky, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 132(9):73. 1970) - upright. = NOBLE UPRIGHT, 
NOBILIS of Appalachian Nurs. 

NOBLE UPRIGHT (M. Dirr in O. Pride, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 60:3. 
1968, without descr.) - growing at Bernheim Forest, Louisville, 
Kentucky. Appalachian Nurs., Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 9. fall 
1950-sp. 1951, as NOBILIS - upright; lvs. slightly larger than most 
/. crenata. Male. F. Galle (personal communication) indicates that the 
leaves are not larger than most /. crenata, based on examination of 
authentic plants. The authors have selected NOBLE UPRIGHT, a later 
syn. of the illegitimate NOBILIS, as the most appropriate name available 
and legitimately publish NOBLE UPRIGHT here for the first time 
using the descr. of NOBILIS. = NOBILIS, NOBLE. 

NORTH STAR (C. Rizzo et al., Scientia Horticulturae 14(1981): 182. 
1981, without descr.). Roemer Nurs., North Madison, Ohio, cat. p. 4. sp. 
1983, without descr. Upright spreading; lvs. dark green, elliptic to 
obovate, tips obtuse, bases cuneate; orig. Lincoln Nurs., Michigan; 
introd. early 1970's by Roemer Nurs., now dropped. Legitimately 
published here for the first time by providing a descr. = ? NORTHERN 
STAR. 

NORTHERN BEAUTY (Zelenka Evergreen Nurs., Grand Haven, 
Michigan, advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 130(10): 132. 1969, without 
descr.). Fairview Evergreen Nurs., Fairview, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 13. 
fall 1975-sp. 1976 - "our recent introd."; lvs. small, convex, glistening. 
Monrovia Nurs., Azusa, California, cat. p. 62. 1988 - Hardy in USDA 
zone 6; more compact than HETZII; dense branches; small. Male, also 
reported as being vigorous upright. 

62 



(Nummularia Group) (T. Dudley and G. Eisenbeiss, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. 
Gesel. 70:1 15-132. 1978) - no nomenclatural status; erected for 
convenience to accommodate the close genetic and morphological 
relationship of five current cultivars: DWARF PAGODA, GREEN 
DRAGON, MARIESII, NAKADA, and NUMMULARIA. 

var. nummularia (Franchet & Savatier) Yatabe (R. Yatabe, Bot. Mag. 
Tokyo 6(63): 157. 1892, without descr.) - rank transfer based on 
/. nummularia Franchet & Savatier. Named from a plant that was and 
still is in cult, in Japan. = NUMMULARIA, /. crenata f. nummularia 
(Franchet & Savatier) Hara; not var. nummularia of Dallimore or Bean, 
and not /. mariesii Veitch ex Bean, mahesii at any rank, or MARIESII. 

f. nummularia (Franchet & Savatier) Hara (H. Hara, Enumeratio 
Spermatophytarum Japonicarum Pt. 3. p. 70. 1954, without descr.) - 
changed rank from var. to f. with syns. of/, nummularia Franchet & 
Savatier, var. nummularia (Franchet & Savatier) Yatabe, and /. mariesii 
Veitch ex Bean. As stated in T. Dudley and G. Eisenbeiss, Mitt. Deut. 
Dendr. Gesel. 70:1 17. 1978, and idem, Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 16. 1978, 
we do not equate the Franchet & Savatier pit. with the Veitch pit., 
which is MARIESII, because these 2 cultivated plants differ in time 
and place of origin. The Hara name at forma rank is questionable 
because the Franchet & Savatier name was based on a pit. of cult, 
origin. = NUMMULARIA, /. nummularia Franchet & Savatier, var. 
nummularia (Franchet & Savatier) Yatabe. Not var. nummularia in 
Dallimord, or NUMMULARIA of many horticultural authors, not 
/. mariesii Veitch ex Bean, not mariesii at any other bot. ranks, and not 
MARIESII. 

NUMMULARIA (A. Franchet and L. Savatier, Enum. PI. Jap. 2:51 1. 
1879, as /. nummularia) - shrub with many dwarf cushion-shaped 
branches that have dense leaf scars; lvs. glabrous, petioles 1-2 mm long, 
blade obovate or round-edged, 1 cm long and wide, apex 3- or rarely 
5-dentate, dentations triangular and pointed forward, with those on 
lateral sides smaller; 3-flowered cyme with floral pedicels 2-3 times 
longer than the peduncle; similar to /. crenata but differs from it by 
having denticulate, triangular apical teeth on the leaves. The earliest use 
of this name at cultivar rank or as a "cultivated variety" is obscure. 
There have been continuous rank changes from species through cultivar 
for both names, NUMMULARIA and MARIESII. The synonymy of 
both names has been seriously mixed. /. mariesii, var. mariesii, and 
f. mariesii all equate directly to MARIESII. The names /. nummularia, 
var. nummularia and f. nummularia all equate directly to 
NUMMULARIA but in the past were incorrectly applied to 
MARIESII or all of its previous ranks. This complex and confusing 
synonymy was well established before the rank of cultivar was 
invented. Sorting of the synonymy of both names was not possible until 
after clarification of identification. T. Dudley and G. Eisenbeiss, in 



63 



Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 70:1 15-131. 1978 and in Holly Soc. Amer. 
Bui. 16:1-18. 1978, established the separate, distinct identities of 
NUMMULARIA and MARIESII and clarified the confused 
synonymy. NUMMULARIA, as a cultivar, is based on /. nummularia 
Franchet & Savatier, a single clone of cultivated origin. /. nummularia 
was a rare, early derived Japanese plant not known outside of Japan and 
may no longer be in cultivation. The clone named NUMMULARIA 
clearly should not be confused with MARIESII. The NUMMULARIA 
of van Gelderen (Dendroflora 8:33. 1971) and of many other 
horticultural authors equates to MARIESII. See f. nummularia for full 
syn. 

NYMPH (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 60:28. 1978, without 
descr.). 

OCONEE RIVER (Evergreen Landscape Service, Athens, Georgia, cat. 
p. 4-5. 1960, without descr.) - discov. as a sdlg. in their nurs. 1952. Pit. 
Pat. No. 1902, Feb. 2, 1960, to A. Rowland, Jr., Athens, Georgia - as a 
cross of/, crenata f. convexa X probably f. latifolia; vigorous, upright; 
branches divaricate; lvs. slightly larger than convexa; male; not subject 
to chlorosis as convexa; roots easily; transplants well. R. Clark, Proc. 
31st Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 1 1. 1961 - Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 
5-61 by Rowland; globular; lvs. dark blue green; twigs dark purple in 
winter. 

OLEAFERA (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 20. fall 1956-sp. 
1957) - spreading; lvs. dark olive green, large; female; (Bennett Hybrid 
Group). S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):64. 1957 - lvs. obovate or 
oblong-obovate. 

ORCHARD (Clarendon Gdns., Pinehurst, North Carolina, cat. 1957, as 
ORCHARDI, without descr.). Ibid., cat. p. 11. 1962, as ORCHARD - 
upright; lvs. broader than most. Orig. Orchard Nurs., Raleigh, North 
Carolina. Female. 

ORIENT ALIS (University of Washington Arb. Bui. 12(2):44. 1949, 
without descr.). 

var. paludosa (Nakai) Hara (H. Hara, Sci. Res. Ozegahara, p. 446. 1954) - 
new name combination based on /. paludosa Nakai ex Hondo & Tobita, 
in Kirigamine Shokubustsu, p. 208. 1941, nomen nudum with Nakai, 
Jour. Jap. Bot. 20:189. 1944, providing the basionym /. radicans var. 
paludosa Nakai. H. Hara, Enumeratio Spermatophytarum Japonicarum 
Pt. 3, p. 17. 1954, provides a detailed list of syns. S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. 
Mag. 36(1 ):49. 1957 - grows in swampy places; stems prostrate; lvs. 
broad-elliptic with rounded apex and obtuse base; not yet introd. 
J. Ohwi, Fl. Jap., English ed., p. 600. 1965 - similar to "typical phase" 
[of /. crenata] but has low creeping stems and branches; swampy places 
Hokkaido, and Honshu, Japan, and the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. 
E. Griffith and H. Hyland, USDA Plant Inventory No. 167:228. 1959 - 
PI 260835, Aomori City, Honshu, Japan; PI 260386, Mutsu Prov., 



64 



Japan; seed presented 1959 by Gov't. Forest Exp. Sta., Okidate, 
Aomori, Japan. H. Fisher, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4):318. 1970 - lists 
many more PI collections of this taxon from the wild in Japan, some of 
which were named subsp. radicans, or var. radicans. Considerable 
controversy exists regarding which infraspecific name, var. paludosa or 
var. radicans, is correct for this taxon. At the botanical rank of varietas, 
the combination /. crenata var. radicans was not validly published until 
1953 by Ohwi (Flora Japan, 1st ed., in Japanese). The varietal rank, var. 
paludosa, was validly published 9 years earlier by Nakai (Jour Jap. Bot. 
20: 189. 1944) but as /. radicans var. paludosa instead of/, crenata var. 
paludosa. In accordance with the International Code of Botanical 
Nomenclature, the earliest validly published epithet at the botanical 
rank must be regarded as the correct name; therefore, the current correct 
name for this taxon is /. crenata var. paludosa (Nakai) Hara. It is 
interesting to note that Ohwi (1953) called the taxon /. crenata var. 
radicans without citing the basionym (/. radicans Nakai ex Hara, Bot. 
Mag. Tokyo 50; 187. 1935). However, in the corrections and additions 
to his Flora (Bull. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33:78. 1953), Ohwi correctly made 
the validating combination of var. radicans by including the basionym 
/. radicans Nakai ex Hara. The English edition of Ohwi' s Flora of 
Japan, p. 600. 1965, followed Hara (1954) and accepted var. paludosa 
and cited /. crenata subsp. radicans, I. crenata var. radicans, 
I. radicans, and /. radicans var. paludosa as syns. of/, crenata var. 
paludosa. The name /. crenata var. paludosa refers to biologically 
highly variable populations that are found occurring in the wild and 
differ from var. crenata, the type variety of/, crenata, in a number of 
correlated characters. Therefore the name paludosa can never be 
legitimately applied as a cultivar epithet. = PALUDOSA of Krussmann 
(but not PALUDOSA of Clarendon), RADICANS, /. radicans var. 
paludosa, I. radicans subsp. radicans, var. radicans. 

PALUDOSA (Clarendon Gdns. Nurs., Pinehurst, North Carolina, cat. 
p. 1 1. 1962) - lvs. variegated; narrow, 1" long; very new; seed from 
Japan. It is known that Clarendon was a recipient of USDA plant 
introductions of var. paludosa. The Clarendon plant probably is a 
seedling from this source and may be an authentic clonal selection. 
Illegitimate as a cultivar name, since it is in Latin form. If the leaf 
variegation of this plant is stable in the future, the plant could be given a 
new, legitimate name, and internationally registered. 

PALUDOSA (G. Krussmann, Handb. Laub., 1st ed., Fascicle Pub., 2:23. 
Dec. 1960, as a cultivar name) - low growing; lvs. broadly elliptic, apex 
round, base obtuse; occurs in swampy locations; orig. Japan; probably 
not yet introd. Idem, Handb. Laub., 2d ed., 2:183. 1977 - correctly 
recognized var. paludosa (Nakai) Hara at botanical rank, and not as a 
cultivar. D. Huttleston, Plants Growing in Conservatories and Gardens, 
Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, p. 5. Oct. 1970, as a 



65 



cultivar, without descr. Huttleston also listed PALUDOSA, incorrectly, 
at cultivar rank. Longwood Gardens received numerous USDA Plant 
Introd. seed accessions as var. and subsp. radicans [var. paludosa] 
collected in the wild in Japan. = var. paludosa, RADICANS, 
/. radicans var. paludosa, but not PALUDOSA of Clarendon, subsp. 
radicans (Nakai) Tatewaki, var. radicans Nakai. 

PECONIC (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Proc. 47th Meet. Holly Soc. 
Amer., p. 22. 1972) - sdlg. sel. by M. Nosal originated about 1945 at 
Nosal Holly Nurs., Calverton, New York; mound shape, compact, slow 
growing; lvs. small, narrow, elliptic; male; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 
8-72 by M. Nosal. 

PEKING (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:37. 1953, without descr.) 
- introd. about 1947 by Styer's Nurs. D. Wyman, Amer. Nurseryman 
1 12(9): 122. 1960 - upright, irregular, slow growing; lvs. small; female. 
Sdlg. orig. about 1932; sel. and named by Styer's Nurs., Concordville, 
Pennsylvania. 

var. pendula (G. Koidzumi, Act. Phytotax. Geobot. 8:194. 1939) - 
weeping branches; habitat Mt. Rokkozan, Settsu Prov., Japan. No 
indication of cult, origin. Most assuredly it does occur in the wild. = 
f. pendula (Koidzumi) Hara. 

f. pendula (Koidzumi) Hara (H. Hara, Enumeratio Spermatophytarum 
Jap., p. 71. 1954, without descr.) - changed rank of var. pendula 
Koidzumi to f. pendula. S.-y. Hu, Nat'l. Hort. Mag. 36(1):49. 1957 - 
"a variety with pendulous branchlets; native Japan; not yet introd. " = 
var. pendula Koidzumi. Most assuredly originated in the wild; but two 
plants, PENDULA of Sugimoto and PENDULA of Huttleston, are 
possible sel. of f. pendula now in cult. 

PENDULA (D. Huttleston, Longwood Gdns., Kennett Square, 

Pennsylvania, Pits. Growing in Conservatories and Gdns., p. 5. 1970, 
without descr.). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form, and since 
the name /. aquifolium PENDULA has priority. Possibly a clone of 
f. pendula. 

PENDULA (J. Sugimoto, New Keys to Woody Pits. Jap., p. 227. 1972) - 
weeping. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form and since 
/. aquifolium PENDULA has priority. Possibly a clone off. pendula. 

PETITE Orig. unkn. Reported at North River Gdn. Center, Chattanooga, 
Tennessee, 1989; lvs. dark green, elliptic to broadly elliptic; tips acute 
to obtuse, bases cuneate. Illegitimate by priority of/, aquifolium 
PETITE. 

PETITE POINTE (Wight Nurs., Cairo, Georgia, cat. p. 3. fall 1964) - 
pyramidal, compact, slow growing, shears well; lvs. similar in size to 
HELLERI; female; new; developed on Eastern Shore, Maryland. 
A. Knox, Nursery Business 1 1(8):5. 1966 - introd. by Wight Nurs. 

PHYTO ECOLOGY (Phyto Ecology Nurs., Easton, Maryland, cat. p. 15. 
sp. 1981) - new from Phyto Ecology; dense, mushroom habit; lvs. waxy 
green. An example of minimal description. 

66 



PICCOLO (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. p. 4. fall 1977) - 
self-shaping ball or mound; about 8" wide after 8 years; very tiny lvs.; 
not yet released. Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, advert, in 
Amer. Nurseryman 151(6): 1 11. 1980 - miniature, grows approx. 1" per 
year and forms a dense globe; new. G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Proc. 
50th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 13. 1980 - Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 
5-80 by N. Cannon; female; orig. 1954 from an R population of a cross 
of CONVEXA X MICROPHYLLA made by Cannon; introd. 
commercially 1979 by Cannon. 

PIEDMONT PYRAMIDAL (H. Hopkins, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 75:1 1. 
1983, without descr.) - in holly collection at Sandhills Community 
College, Pinehurst, North Carolina. Gilbert's Nurs., Chesnee, South 
Carolina, cat. p. 1. Jan. -March 1983, without descr. Broad and upright, 
pyramidal; lvs. obovate, dark green; female. Legitimately published 
here for the first time by providing a descr. = PIEDMONT. 

PIN CUSHION (Monrovia Nurs., Azusa, California, cat. p. 19. 1988) - 
tiny leaves on a very dense globe. Name may be orthographic variant of 
PINCUSHION. Illegitimate, since the name /. opaca PIN CUSHION 
has priority. 

PINCUSHION (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. p. 2. 1974, 
without descr.). Phyto Ecology Nurs., Galena, Maryland, cat. p. 7. 1976 
- dwarf, with pin cushion form, low growing. Orig. before 1969 by 
Cannon. Illegitimate, since the name /. opaca PIN CUSHION has 
priority. 

var. praecox (J. M. Fogg, Jr., Proc. 28th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 2. 
1960, without descr.) - in holly collection, Morris Arb., Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. = PRAECOX of Wister. 

PRAECOX (Chugai Shokubutsuen Nurs., Yamamoto, Kawabe-Gum, 
Kobe, Japan, cat. p. 3. 1938-39) - said to have a white berry; seed 
offered. While this cv. may be genuine, its sdlgs. are not the same clone 
as PRAECOX and cannot use this name. Probably a different clone 
from the PRAECOX at Henry Foundation and Morris Arb. 
(Watanabeana Group). 

PRAECOX (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:38. 1953, without 
descr.) - in holly collection Henry Foundation, Gladwyne, 
Pennsylvania, and Morris Arb., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. L. Barnes, 
List of Woody Pit. Materials, Arboretum Barnes Foundation, Marion, 
Pennsylvania, p. 1 1. 1956, without descr. - probably a different clone 
from PRAECOX of Chugai Shokubutsuen Nurs. = var. praecox of 
Fogg. Female. Illegitimate, since the name PRAECOX of Chugui 
Shokubutsuen Nurs. has priority. 

PRIDE DWARF (O. Pride, Proc. Holly Symposium, Ann. Meet., 

Missouri State Nurs. Assoc, p. 1 1. 1963) - lvs. small, convex, very dark 
rich foliage; sdlg. of GREEN LUSTRE; sel. and named by O. Pride, 
Butler, Pennsylvania. Dwarf, compact. 



67 



PRIDE GEM (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 60:28. 1978, without 
descr.). 

PRIDE HYBRID 18 (O. Pride, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 60:2. 1978, without 
descr.) - no leaf burn in past 12 yrs; has survived -25°F. 

PRIDE JEWEL (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 60:28. 1978, without 
descr.). 

PRIDE'S TINY (H. Schroeder, Proc. 56th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 16. 
1979) - hardy in Evansville, Indiana; has survived -26°F. PRIDE'S 
TINY has been documented and described under TINY and TINY TIM. 
Even though /. crenata TINY and TINY TIM were published earlier 
than PRIDE'S TINY, they are illegitimate, since /. opaca has priority 
by even earlier publication. PRIDE'S TINY is legitimate as the next, 
though later available name. = /. crenata TINY, /. crenata TINY TIM. 

PROCUMBENS (B. Wigginton, Trees and Shrubs for Southeast, p. 74. 
1963) - dwarf, weeping or spreading, scrambling growth, thins out in 
center; a new introd. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 

PROSTRATA (Gilmore Plants and Bulbs, Julian, North Carolina, cat. p. 11. 
fall 1976-sp. 1977, without descr.) - in syn. under REPANDENS. = 
REPANDENS, SPREADING, not PROSTRATA of Lindley. 

PROSTRATA (Lindley Nurs., Greensboro, North Carolina, cat. p. 7. fall 
1959-sp. 1960) - prostrate. Named by Harry Deverman of Clifton, New 
Jersey, and known to have been distributed in 1976 or earlier. Illegitimate, 
since the name is in Latin form and the descr. is too limited. Not 
PROSTRATA of Gilmore. 

PUMILA (Fox Hill Pit. Nurs., Keston, Kent, England, cat. p. 12. 1930) - 
more dwarf than type [of/, crenata var. crenata]. Illegitimate, since the 
name /. aquifolium PUMILA has priority. 

PYGMY (Gerard K. Klyn Nurs., Mentor, Ohio, cat. p. 4. fall 1958, without 
descr.) - "will be introd. in 1959-60." Dense, glossy; female; orig. by 
A. Shammarello, South Euclid, Ohio. = GREEN PYGMY. 

PYRAMID ALIS (Angelica Nurs., Angelica, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 1 1. fall 
1959-sp. 1960) - broad, compact, pyramidal; lvs. glossy; fr. glistening; 
extremely hardy; finest /. crenata seen. Illegitimate, since the name 
/. aquifolium PYRAMID ALIS has priority. 

PYRAMIDALIS FASTIGIATA (Winn Nurs., Norfolk, Virginia, cat. p. 6. 
1966-67, without descr.). 

PYRAMIDALIS LITTLELEAF (Winn Nurs., Norfolk, Virginia, cat. p. 5. 
1966-67, without descr.). 

subsp. radicans (Nakai) Tatewaki (M. Tatewaki, Act. Phyto. Geo. 2:243. 
1933, without descr.) - rank change of/, radicans Nakai, Rep. Veg. Mt. 
Apoi, p. 37. 1930, nomen nudum to /. crenata subsp. radicans. 
H. Hyland, USDA Pit. Inventory 168:149, 242. 1961 - seed of/, crenata 
subsp. radicans PI 266339 and PI 269256, seed presented 1960 by 
H. Kubota, Nikko, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Idem, USDA Pit. Inventory 
168:215. 1961 - seed of/, crenata subsp. radicans, PI 275851-275857, 



68 



were coll. in the wild in elevations from 120 m to 1,200 m by J. Creech 
1961 from Aomori Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. These plants were 
variable in habit from prostrate to vigorous upright and also variable in 
leaf size and site preferences. The 1933 subsp. combination, /. crenata 
subsp. radicans, of Tatewaki is invalid for lack of a descr. The 
basionym, /. radicans, was not validated with a descr. until 1936 by 
Hara, as /. radicans Nakai ex Hara, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 50:187. 1936. = 
PALUDOSA of Krussmann, var. paludosa (Nakai) Hara, RADICANS, 
/. radicans, I. radicans var. paludosa, not PALUDOSA of Clarendon. 

var. radicans (Nakai) Murai (H. Murai, Prelim. Rep. Fl. Towada & 

Hakkoda, p. 69. 1935, without descr.) - invalid new combination. Based 
on /. radicans Nakai (a nomen nudum), Rep. Veg. Mt. Apoi, p. 37. 1930. 
The 1935 varietal combination by Murai of/, crenata var. radicans 
(another nomen nudum) is invalid because /. radicans as a species was 
not validated until 1936 by Hara (/. radicans Nakai ex Hara, Bot. Mag. 
Tokyo 50:187. 1936). J. Ohwi, Fl. Jap., 1st ed. p. 733. 1953 - referred to 
var. radicans without citing the basionym. Ohwi, however, corrected 
this omission in Bull. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33:78. 1953, 9 years after Hara 
validated, with a description and basionym, /. radicans var. paludosa in 
Jour. Jap. Bot. 20:189. 1944. Ohwi, Fl. Jap. (English ed.), p. 600. 1955 - 
var. radicans cited as syn. of var. paludosa (Nakai) Hara. E. Griffith, 
USDA Pit. Inventory 163:186, 188, 189. 1955, as var. radicans - PI 
227531, coll. in Mopporo Nat'l. Forest, Hokkaido, Japan; var. radicans 
PI 227569 and var. radicans PI 227576, coll. from the wild 1955 in 
Aomori Prefecture, Honshu, Japan, by J. Creech, prostrate, lvs. small; 
female. These are the earliest of many USDA PI collections of this taxon 
from Japan. = PALUDOSA of Krussmann, var. paludosa (Nakai) Hara, 
subsp. radicans (Nakai) Tatewaki, RADICANS, /. radicans, I. radicans 
var. paludosa, not PALUDOSA of Clarendon. 

RADICANS (J. Floyd, Holly Evaluation at Hort. Gdns. of Clemson 

University, Clemson, South Carolina Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bui. 1050:19. 
1974) - spreading, dwarf, dense, compact; lvs. larger than most 
/. crenata lvs. Probably a sdlg. clone of var. radicans that originated 
from USDA Pit. Introd. distribution. Illegitimate, since the name is in 
Latin form. Possibly could be renamed, registered, described, and 
published as a sdlg. cultivar of var. paludosa. 

RECURVIFOLIA (Greenbrier Farms Nurs., Norfolk, Virginia, cat. p. 40. 
1971-72) - excellent, spreading; intended to replace CONVEXA; male; 
(Bennett Hybrid Group). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 

RED LION (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:38. 1953, without 
descr.) - sel. 1934 by P. du Pont, Longwood Gdns., Kennett Square, 
Pennsylvania. Wilmat Hollies, Gladwyne, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 14. 1959 
- "fine as a rock garden specimen." Male. Similar to and sometimes 
confused with HELLERI, which is female. Propagated by Earl 
Hamilton, Red Lion Nurs. After a great deal of comparison, Red Lion 



69 



Nurs. decided that there was essentially no difference between RED 
LION and HELLERI, so discontinued propagating and selling RED 
LION. However, the names are not synonymous, since the plants are of 
different cultivated origin, different sex, and are not the identical clone. 

REFLEXA SUPREME (Stephens Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. fall 
1966, without descr., in syn. under HETZII). (Rovex Hybrid Group). = 
HETZII, GLOBOSA ROTUNDIFOLIA, GLOBOSA 
ROTUNDIFOLIA HETZII. 

f. rehderiana (S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1):64. 1957, in the 

formulation of the name var. longifolia f. rehderiana MICROPHYLLA) 
- low compact; lvs. small, shiny, elliptic, acute at both ends, 4 minute 
teeth on each side. Seemingly, f. rehderiana is described by Hu only as 
a single clone, in the sense of MICROPHYLLA. However, if her 
intention was to erect a new botanical forma, her descr. of f. 
rehderiana lacks a Latin diagnosis, a designation of a type, and data on 
natural distribution. While this botanical forma may have been 
described and published elsewhere, the above reference is the only one 
found to date. 

REPANDENS (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:38. 1953, without 
descr.) - orig. about 1940 by B. Howell, Bristol, Virginia; also sold 
under the name "Spreading." Howell Nurs., Knoxville, Tennessee, cat. 
p. 6. 1939, without descr. - listed as "Spreading"; possibly intended as a 
common name and not as a cultivar name. Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, 
Alabama, cat. p. 20. 1953-54 - very low, spreading; lvs. flat, closely 
spaced. Flattest growing of all /. crenata cultivars; male. = 
PROSTRATA of Gilmore, SPREADING of Howell (not SPREADING 
of Angelica). 

ROBBIN'S #2 New name. Upright, rounded; lvs. dark green, obovate, 
crenulate, apices obtuse, bases cuneate; orig. before 1972; introd. by 
Robbin's Nurs., Willard, North Carolina. The authors of this checklist 
are the first to legitimately publish the name ROBBIN'S #2. 

ROBERT CULPEPPER (Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. 
1967-68, without descr.). Broad, upright and spreading; lvs. dark green, 
curved, crenulate, elliptic obovate, tips obtuse, bases cuneate; male; 
sdlg. sel., named, and introd. by Tom Dodd, Jr.; named for a Baptist 
missionary. Legitimately published here for the first time by providing 
a descr. 

ROCKY CREEK (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Holly Soc. Jour. 
7(4):22. 1989) - orig. 1982 by Owen Howell as a mutation of 
BENNETT'S COMPACT (Bennett Hybrid Group); broad with 
upright cork screw stems; lvs. flat to convex, broadly elliptic; male; 
Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 3-89 by Owen Howell, Rocky Creek Nurs., 
Lucedale, Mississippi. = CONVEXA TORULOSA. 

var. rotundifolia Maximowicz ex Matsumura (J. Matsumura, Shokubustsu 
Mie-i, p. 149. 1895, 1897, 1900). No description for this name or 



70 



reference by Maximowicz has ever been found. No authentic material is 
extant from which to prepare a description. All syns. of this name are 
questionable. See ROTUNDIFOLIA for discussion of the use of this 
name. 

f. rotundifolia (S.-y. Hu, Nat'l. Hort. Mag. 36(1):49,64. 1957) - described 
as "a Horticultural variety, also known as f. rotundifolia, f.fortunei, 
f. major'; ROTUNDIFOLIA, as a cultivar, is described on p. 64 of the 
Hu reference as a clone of f. latifolia, but is stated as a "horticultural 
variety" on p. 49. It is not clear whether Hu was determining or just 
reporting synonymy. At the botanical rank of forma, the name 
rotundifolia is invalid, since it has not been found with a Latin 
description. Furthermore, the "original" reference to var. rotundifolia on 
which the forma was presumably based has not been located. Part of the 
problem of ROTUNDIFOLIA as a cultivar under f. rehderiana appears 
to be resolved by S.-y. Hu, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4): 199. 1970 - where 
LATIFOLIA, MAJOR, and ROTUNDIFOLIA are recognized as 
distinct and different cultivar names and are not assigned as belonging 
under any stated bot. rank under /. crenata. 

ROTUNDIFOLIA Name based on var. rotundifolia Maximowicz ex 
Matsumura. (Matsumura, Shokubustsu Mei-i, p. 149. 1895 and 1900, 
without descr.). No description of var. rotundifolia Maximowicz ex 
Matsumura has ever been found. Perfection Nurs., Foley, Alabama, cat. 
p. 1 1. 1929-30 (the earliest commercial listing found) - similar to usual 
/. crenata but lvs. larger and roundish. Manshu Nosan Shokai Nurs., 
Dairen (Luta), Manchuria, cat. 1932, without descr. - offered seed of 
rotundifolia. A. Rehder, Biblio. Trees & Shrubs, p. 402. 1949 - ? syn. of 
f. latifolia (Goldring) Rehder. H. Hume, Hollies, p. 106. 1953, under 
var. latifolia - stated that var. latifolia is frequently sold as 
ROTUNDIFOLIA [in U.S. nurseries]. Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. 
Bui. 6:39. 1953, without descr. - male; with "? globosa" in syn. Tingle 
Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 60. fall 1956-sp. 1957 - compact; 
female. S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):49, 64. 1957, as clone of 
f. latifolia - upright; lvs. dark green, shiny, oblong or obovate-oblong, 
5/8"- 1 1/4" long, 3/7"- 5/8" wide, obtuse at both ends, 11-16 teeth on 
each side; having the largest lvs. among all /. crenata in American gdns. 
Although detailed, Hu's description lacks a sex determination, which is 
critical, since clones of different sex have been reported for this cultivar. 
Idem, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4): 199. 1970 - with descr., but differs from 
the previous reference in that lvs. are described as l/2"-3/4" wide. 
B. Boom, Benaming, Geschiedenis en Kenmerken Van een Aatal 
Hortachtig Planten 2:128. 1959 and idem, Nederl. Dendr., 5th ed., 
p. 323. 1965 and p. 323. 1972 - lvs. large, usually 2- 4 cm long, similar 
to LATIFOLIA but glossier and somewhat more prominently rounded; 
origin unknown. D. Wyman, Amer. Nurseryman 123(1): 123. 1960 - 
growth sparse and lanky; in syn. to latifolia. Appalachian Nurs., 



71 



Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 15. sp. 1967 - globe shape, dense, 
compact; lvs. rounded; female. D. van Gelderen, Dendroflora 8:33. 1971 
- in syn. to LATIFOLIA. R. Clark, Hortus Third, p. 591. 1976 - upright; 
lvs. dark green, glossy, to 1 1/4" long, serrate. The authenticity of the 
above descriptions are dubious, since the original Maximowicz name 
and plant have never been established. Moreover, a large number of 
obviously different clones of independent and often obscure origins are 
labeled as ROTUNDIFOLIA and extensively grown in U.S. nurseries. 
Considerable synonymy has been cited but cannot be verified. The var. 
rotundifolia Maximowicz ex Matsumura was probably a "cultivated 
variety" known in Japan; but a description for it is unknown, and its 
existence and introd. outside of Japan has not been confirmed. At 
cultivar rank, there is no known plant to which the name /. crenata 
ROTUNDIFOLIA can be legitimately applied. Perhaps in the case of the 
Perfection Nursery plant and plants from other nurseries too numerous to 
list, no relationship to the Maximowicz plant was intended. The cultivar 
name ROTUNDIFOLIA in /. crenata is illegitimate, since the name 
/. aquifolium ROTUNDIFOLIA (1874) has priority. = ? globosa 
Wister, ? LATIFOLIA, ? var. latifolia, ? f. latifolia, ? var. rotundifolia 
Maximowicz, ? f. rotundifolia Hu, ? ROUND LEAF. 

ROTUNDIFOLIA AUREA (Royal Moerheim Nurs., Dedemsuaart, 
Netherlands, cat. p. 17. 1935-36, without descr.). (Variegated Group). = 
? AUREA. Illegitimate because both words of the name have been 
previously published as individual cultivar names. 

ROTUNDIFOLIA AUREO-VARIEGATA (A. Lavallee, Arb. 

Segrezianum, p. 44. 1877, without descr., as var. rotundifolia aureo- 
variegata). = AUREO-VARIEGATA, var. aureo-variegata Goldring, 
f. aureo-variegata Schelle, var. luteo-variegata Regel, f. luteo-variegata 
(Regel) Rehder, (not LUTEO-VARIEGATA). 

ROTUNDIFOLIA PYRAMIDALIS (Charles Fiore Nurs., Prairie View, 
Illinois, cat. p. 56, 1 10. fall 1966) - pyramidal. Illegitimate, since the 
name is in Latin form. 

ROTUNDIFOLIA SUSPENSUM (Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, 
cat. p. 6. 1966-67) - medium growing, somewhat like ROTUNDIFOLIA 
but more spreading; lvs. dark green, smaller than ROTUNDIFOLIA. 
Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 75:12. 1983 - in holly collection Sandhills 
Community College, Pinehurst, North Carolina, as ROTUNDIFOLIA 
SUSPENSA; male. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 

ROTUNDIFOLIA UPRIGHT (Chandler Nurs., Florence, Alabama, cat. 
p. 3. fall 1980, without descr.). Illegitimate, since the name lacks a descr. 
and since part of the name is in Latin form. 

ROUND LEAF (Millcreek Nurs., Newark, Delaware, cat. p. 2. 1958, 
without descr.). Suspected as a common name for ROTUNDIFOLIA. 

(Rovex Hybrid Group) Orig. before 1940 from a block of sdlgs. of open- 
pollinated CONVEXA X ROTUNDIFOLIA at Fairview Evergreen 



72 



Nurs., Fairview, Pennsylvania. Only two selections from the block of 
sdlgs. are known to have been introd. Earl Dilatush, Robbinsville, New 
Jersey, cat. 1952 - indicated that the two legitimately named sel. are 
HETZII and ROVEX HYBRID #32. 

ROVEX HYBRID #32 (Earl Dilatush, Robbinsville, New Jersey, cat. 
1952 - semidwarf, wider than tall; lvs. dark; discontinued. (Rovex 
Hybrid Group). 

RUGOSA (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 27. fall 1971-sp. 
1972, without descr.). RUGOSA as a cv. name is certainly a 
misapplication: the intended plant is /. rugosa. 

SCHWOEBELI (Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. p. 10. sp. 1969) - 
spreader; very hardy. Illegitimate, since the name SCHWOEBEL'S 
COMPACT has priority. = SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACT, 
COMPACTA of Schwoebel. 

SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACT (Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. 
1968-69, as SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACTA) - spreader, very hardy. 
Introd. before 1964 by Richard Schwoebel Nurs., Ardmore, 
Pennsylvania. Orig. from seed of open-poll. CONVEXA growing 
among MICROPHYLLA, and sown 1949 by Richard Schwoebel. First 
offered for sale by Schwoebel Nurs. 1954. Similar to HELLERI in 
spreading habit but faster growing and hardier. Lvs. small, more or less 
convex, light green. Female. = COMPACTA of deWilde's Rhodo-Lake 
Nurs., SCHWOEBELI, SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACTA. By providing 
corrected orthography, the authors are the first to legitimately publish 
the name SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACT. 

SCHWOEBEL'S UPRIGHT New name. While this name appears to 
have been used earlier, it is not known to have been published before. 
All published synonyms are illegitimate. Orig. from same sdlg. 
population that yielded SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACT. First offered 
for sale 1953. Upright, very compact with little need for pruning; lvs. 
very shiny, boxwoodlike appearance. = ERECTA, EXCELSA, 
EXCELSA SCHWOEBEL, EXCELSA UPRIGHT. The authors are the 
first to publish the name SCHWOEBEL'S UPRIGHT. 

SENSATION (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. Nov. 1973) - 
semidwarf, cone shape when landscape size, medium growth rate, dense 
when sheared; lvs. small, recurved, dark green; male; orig. after 1954 
from a cross made by N. Cannon; sel., named, and introd. by Cannon. 

SENTINALIS (R. P. Tuthill Associates, Newton, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 15. 
1989, without descr.). = ? SENTINEL. 

SENTINEL (J. Feucht, Proc. 35th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer. p. 5. 1963) - 
narrow upright, conical, loose growing; lvs. large, dark shiny, convex; 
heavy fruiting; very hardy; resist, to spider mite; orig. 1955 from an 
open-poll, group of 5,000 sdlgs.; sel., named, introd. by N. Cannon; 
Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 3-63 by Cannon. = ? SENTINALIS 

SHANGHAI (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:39. 1953, without 



73 



descr.) - introd. about 1947 by Styer's Nurs. D. Wyman, Amer. 
Nurseryman 1 12(9): 122. 1960 - slow growing, globe shaped; lvs. small; 
sdlg. orig. about 1932. Sel. and named by Styer's Nurs., Concordville, 
Pennsylvania; female. 

SHOUL (Towson Nurs., Cockeysville, Maryland, cat. p. 8. sp. 1963, as 
SHOULI, without descr.). Compact, spreading, low growing; lvs. gray 
green; probably introd. by Towson Nurs.; named for Lawrence Shoul 
before 1957. By providing a descr., the authors are the first to 
legitimately publish the name SHOUL. 

SIR ECHO (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. p. 3. fall 1977, 
without descr.). Orig. at Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware. Brother 
sdlg. to BUTTERBALL, FORTY NINER, HONEYCOMB, IVORY 
HALL, IVORY TOWER, STARGLOW. Lvs. oval to slightly 
obovate; fr. yellow; heavy fruiting. One of seven yellow fr. pits, from 
400 sdlgs. rec. from USDA. (Watanabeana Group). Illegitimate, since 
the name /. aquifolium SIR ECHO has priority. 

SIROFUKURIN (J. Creech, Pit. Explorations Ornamentals in Southern 
Japan, USDA, ARS 34-1:39. 1957, as var., PI 236234, without descr.). 
E. Griffith and H. Highland, USDA Plant Inventory 164:221. April 
1966, without descr. - as SHIRO-FUKURIN, variegated form, PI 
236020; coll. by J. Creech from Nakada Nurs., Angyo, Japan. Ibid., 
165:6. April 1966 - as SIRO-FUKURIN, PI 236234, without descr.; rec. 
Jan. 1957; purchased by J. Creech from Nakada Nurs., Angyo, Japan. 
The same pit. is represented by PI 236020 and PI 236234, and NA 
25699. Illegitimate, because the name is a Japanese common name 
(meaning white margin) and has unstable spellings in Romanji. = 
SNOWFLAKE, /. crenata ALBO-MARGINATA of Conder. 

SIRUMI-INTSUGE (Seed Exchange List, Aritaki Arb., Saitama-Ken, 
Japan, Pt. 1, p. 1. 1981, without descr.). This Romanji name is 
considered a descriptive common name (English translation is "white 
fruited holly") and is not acceptable as a cultivar name. (Watanabeana 
Group). 

SKY PENCIL (Shibamichi Hoten Nurs., Kawaguchi-City, Saitama, 
Japan, Wholesale Price List 1990, without descr.). Discovered in the 
wild and named by Norihiro Shibamichi on Mount Daisen, Honshu, 
Japan. Extremely and uniquely columnar, at least ten times taller than 
wide; lvs. to 3.5 cm long and to 0.8 cm wide, curved, keeled, slightly 
convex, elliptic, bases broadly acuminate, tips rounded, margins finely 
serrate, color dark glossy green above, petioles 4 mm long. Female. 
First introd. into U.S. in 1985 from the private collection of Dr. Masato 
Yokoi, Kawaguchi City, Japan. Dr. Yokoi donated propagation 
material of this selection (NA 57190) to the U.S. National Arboretum 
collecting expedition of 1985 (sponsored by the Friends of the National 
Arboretum). Now in commercial production in Japan. Legitimately 
published here for the first time by providing a description. 



74 



SNOWFLAKE New name. Erected here to replace the name 

SIROFUKURIN (or SHIRO-FUKURIN) of Creech PI 234020 and PI 
236234 (NA 25699), and ALBO-MARGINATA of Conder. The name 
SIROFUKURIN with its various Romanji spellings is considered a 
descriptive common name, not a cultivar name. Conder, recognized the 
Romanji "Shiro-kukurin-tsuge" as a common name and gave the name 
albo-marginata, which is illegitimate by priority of /. aquifolium 
ALBO-MARGINATA. Upright, moderate growth rate; lvs. broadly 
ovate, 3 cm long, 1.1 cm wide, concave on the upper surface, with pale 
green streaking between the dark green center and irregular cream 
colored margin; margin distinctly thinner than the rest of the blade; 
variegation very stable; hardy in USDA zone 7; female. Possibly 
cultivated in Japan for many years. Since this pit. was without a 
legitimate name, the authors provided the new name SNOWFLAKE, 
which is published here for the first time. = ALBO-MARGINATA of 
Conder, SHIROFUKURIN. 

SOFT HELLERI (Magnolia Nurseries, Chunchula, Alabama, advert, in 
Anderson Hort. Library's Source List. p. 94. 1989, without descr.). 
Illegitimate, because the originator changed the name. = SOFT 
TOUCH. 

SOFT TOUCH New name. Compact and spreading; branchlets not 
ridged, and very flexible hence the name SOFT TOUCH; lvs. dark 
green, elliptic, mid rib distinctly light green above; female; sel. and 
named by D. Ellis, Magnolia Nurs., Chunchula, Alabama. The authors 
are the first to publish the name SOFT TOUCH. = SOFT HELLERI. 

SPARKLER (Bosley Nurs., Mentor, Ohio, cat. p. 4. 1963) - compact; lvs. 
shiny. Lovett's Nurs., Colts Neck, New Jersey, cat. p. 26. fall 1966-sp. 
1967 - compact, pyramidal; lvs. very glossy, which provided the 
inspiration for the name. 

SPECIAL (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 12. fall 1954-sp. 
1955) - low growing, very compact; lvs. bright green. Illegitimate, since 
the name /. aquifolium SPECIAL has priority. 

SPREADING (Angelica Nurs., Mohnton, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 13. 
1961-62) - very low, spreading; lvs. long, narrow; resembles 
ROTUNDIFOLIA in character but hardier; male; new Angelica sel. 
Illegitimate, since the name SPREADING of Howell has priority. Not 
syn. with SPREADING of Howell, and not REPANDENS. 

SPREADING (Howell Nurs., Knoxville, Tennessee, cat. p. 6. 1939, 
without descr.). Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bull. 6:38. 1953, 
without descr. - in syn. of REPANDENS. = REPANDENS, 
PROSTRATA of Gilmore; not SPREADING of Angelica and not 
"Spreading Howell Hybrid" (= HALLIANA). 

SPREADING COMPACTA (Manor View Farm, Monkton, Maryland, cat. 
p. 13. 1989, without descr.). = ? BENNETT'S COMPACT, 
? BENNETTII, ? COMPACTA (Bennett Hybrid Group). 



75 



SPREADING GLASS (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 60:28. 1978, 
without descr.). 

SQUAMATA (Turner Bros., West Long Branch, New Jersey, cat. p. 1 1. 
sp. 1961) - low growing; lvs. small. E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. 
Let. 25:17. 1965, without descr. - Rutgers — The State University, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, rec. from Don McLaughlin. Illegitimate, since 
the name is in Latin form. 

STARGLOW New Name. Sel. and named by N. Cannon, Greenwood 
Delaware, from 400 sdlgs. grown from seed distrib. 1965 by USD A Pit. 
Intro. Sta., Glenn Dale, Maryland. Designated earlier as Cannon #7. 
Lvs. dark green, elliptic; yellow fr. Sister sdlg. to BUTTERBALL, 
FORTY NINER, HONEYCOMB, IVORY HALL, IVORY 
TOWER, SIR ECHO. (Watanabeana Group). = CANNON #7. 
Published here for the first time. 

STEED'S (G. Klingaman, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 73:8. 1982, without 
descr.). Piney Ridge Nurs., Bostic, North Carolina, cat. p. 2. Aug. 1983 
- "Upright Holly," without further descr. Mobjack Nurs., Mobjack, 
Virginia, cat. p. 7. sp. 1986, without descr. Dudley Nurs., Thompson, 
Georgia, cat. p. 14. 1987 - upright, moderate size. Ingleside Plantation 
Nurs., Oakgrove, Virginia, cat. p. 26. fall 1988-sp. 1989 - upright, 
narrower than other upright /. crenata. Male. = STEED'S UPRIGHT. 

STEED'S NO. 2 (R. Evans, Proc. 51st Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 6. 1974, 
without descr.). 

STEED'S UPRIGHT (Sandhills Community College, Holly Soc. Amer. 
Let. 75:12. 1983, male, without descr.). Taylor's Nurs., Raleigh, North 
Carolina, cat. p. 39. fall 1988-sp. 1989 - similar to COMPACTA 
[BENNETT'S COMPACT] in foliage but with definite upright habit. 
Illegitimate, by priority of STEED'S. = STEED'S. 

STOKES (Anonymous, Proc. 76th Annual Convention Amer. Assoc. 
Nurserymen, p. 174. 1951) - extremely dwarf, compact, semi-formal; 
new lvs. golden green; exceptionally heavy root system; extremely 
hardy; adaptable to varied soil conditions; discov. about 1925 at Stokes 
Nurs., Butler, Pennsylvania; introd. about 1951. Amer. Assoc. 
Nurserymen Reg. No. 265, 1951, by W. Stokes. U.S. Pit. Pat. No. 887, 
Oct. 25, 1949, issued to W. Stokes, without cultivar name - flattened 
globular shape; said to be hardier than /. crenata CONVEXA, 
MICROPHYLLA, ROTUNDIFOLIA, and /. glabra. Male. = STOKES 
VARIETY (not/, vomitoria STOKES or/, vomitoria STOKES 
DWARF). 

STOKES SPORT (Phyto Ecology, Ridgely, Maryland, cat. p. 15. fall 
1981-sp. 1982) - dense, low, globular shape; lvs. tiny, dark green; new 
from Phyto Ecology. Male. 

STOKES VARIETY (Magnolia Gdns. & Nurs., Charleston, South 
Carolina, cat. p. 4. fall 1970-sp. 1971, without descr.). = STOKES. 

STOKEY'S (O'Connor Nurs., Warsaw, Kentucky, advert, in Amer. 



76 



Nurseryman 157(1): 161. 1983) - upright. Illegitimate, since descr. 
inadequate. 

SUNSHINE (George W. Park Seed Co., Greenwood, South Carolina, cat. 
p. 5. sp. 1973) - dense, tolerates pruning; fr. green until Christmas then 
turns yellow; holds up well in cold; hardy USDA zone 6. Previously 
named YELLOW BERRY by originator, N. Cannon, Greenwood, 
Delaware. (Watanabeana Group). = YELLOW BERRY of Cannon, 
? YELLOW BERRY of Huttleston. 

Tl (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 20. fall 1956-sp. 1957) - 
compact, low growing; lvs. small; Tingle Nurs. introd. Female. = 
T-ONE, TINGLE-ONE. 

TEE DEE (Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 10. 1982-83, 
without descr.). Pit. first sold by Tom Dodd Nurs., cat. fall 1970, as 
HELLERI MUTATION. The name HELLERI MUTATION is a 
descriptive term, since the pit. orig. as mutation of HELLERI at Tom 
Dodd Nurs. before 1968. The name TEE DEE is accepted here as the 
correct name replacing the illegitimate name HELLERI MUTATION. 
Very slow growing with upright branches forming a broad mound that is 
wider than tall; lvs. small, broadly elliptic. Female. By providing a 
descr., the authors are the first to legitimately publish the name TEE 
DEE. = HELLERI MUTATION. 

TENNYSON (Boulevard Nurs., Newport, Rhode Island, cat. p. 11. 1940) - 
compact, "cleaner" and more glossy lvs. than typical for /. crenata 
[a combined descr. of TENNYSON and LONGFELLOW]; sdlg. sel. 
many years ago; all stock from original pit. D. Wyman, Arnoldia 
29(7) :46. 1960 - ragged grower; closely resembles /. crenata 
microphylla. Wisteret al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:41. 1953, without 
descr. - orig. Holland 1917, Boulevard Nurs. about 1920; female. = 
? TENNYSON of Hohman. 

var. thomsonii (Hooker f.) Loesener (T. Loesener, Monog. Aquifol., Pt. 1, 
78:202. 1901) - change in rank from species to bot. var. J.D. Hooker, 
Flora British India 1:602. 1875 - as /. thomsonii; small shrub; branchlets 
puberulous; lvs. 1/2"- 1", obovate or oblanceolate, subacute or apiculate 
serrulate, punctate; fr. solitary on pedicels 1/4" long, purple; grows at 
4,000-5,000 ft elev. in Bhutan. H. Hyland, USDA Pit. Inventory 
173: 147. 1969, as /. intricata Hooker f., PI 307276 - evergreen shrub to 
25 feet; lvs. small, margins crenate- serrate; coll. Mount Tonglu, West 
Bengal, India at 8,000 ft. by F. deVos and E. Corbett, April 1965. Male. 
This PI 307276 was misidentified as /. intricata Hooker f. and was later 
more accurately identified by S.-y. Hu as /. thomsonii Hooker f. H. Hara, 
Flora of Eastern Himalaya, p. 187. 1966 - preferred the name /. crenata 
var. thomsonii over /. thomsonii and commented "The relationship 
between the Himalayan and typical /. crenata of Japan needs further 
critical studies based on ample material." The usage of var. thomsonii 
(Hooker f.) Loesener here does not solve this difficult taxonomic 



77 



identification problem but does indicate that /. crenata var. thomsonii 
or /. thomsonii is in cultivation. This taxon also occurs in the wild in 
Sikkim and Nepal, 3,000-3,300 m elev. = /. thomsonii Hooker f. 

TINGLE-ONE (S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):64. 1957 and idem, 
Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4):2. 1970) - low growing; lvs. oblong-elliptic, 
small, occasionally rounded at tip, sometimes convex; probably a 
hybrid off. microphylla and f. convexa; female; orig. Tingle Nurs., 
Pittsville, Maryland. = T-ONE, Tl. 

TINY (Orlando Pride, Butler, Pennsylvania, advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 
142(1);86. 1975) - the lowest growing; lvs. large, convex, very dark 
green, shiny; female; very hardy in Butler, Pennsylvania. Illegitimate, 
since the name /. opaca TINY has priority. = PRIDE'S TINY, TINY 
TIM. 

TINY TIM (Orlando Pride, Butler, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 4. 1963-64, 
without descr.) - very hardy. O. Pride, Proc. Holly Symposium, Ann. 
Rpt. Missouri State Nurs. Assoc, p. 11. 1963 - as hardy as STOKES; 
orig. about 1953 as sdlg. of STOKES that was given to O. Pride by 
Warren Stokes, Butler, Pennsylvania; sel., named, and introd. by O. 
Pride. Very compact and spreading, similar to STOKES in habit but 
much more luster to lvs. At one time in conversation, O. Pride 
ultimately preferred the name TINY to TINY TIM. However, he was 
not aware, when he named this cultivar of/, crenata, of the priority of 
/. opaca TINY and /. opaca TINY TIM, which made his /. crenata 
TINY and TINY TIM illegitimate. = PRIDE'S TINY, TINY. 

T-ONE (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 16. fall 1958-sp. 1959) 
- low, compact, spreading. Female. The name T-ONE is accepted over 
the earlier name Tl because T-ONE has been used consistently by the 
originator since 1958. = Tl, TINGLE-ONE. 

TOPIARY (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. sp. 1973) - dense, 
stiff, unusual; said to grow in any direction in which a new bud is 
pointed, even straight down; suitable for topiary work; female. Twiggy, 
dwarf, branching at all angles; orig. after 1954 from a cross made by 
N. Cannon; sel., named, and introd. by Cannon. 

f. tricocca (Makino) Hara (H. Hara, Enumeratio Spermatophytarum 
Japonicarum Pt. 3 p. 71. 1954, without descr.) - changed rank from var. 
tricocca Makino (T. Makino, Zissai-Engei 27; 1096. 1941.) to bot. 
forma. S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 );49. 1957 - a forma with fruit 
born in threes; native Japan; probably not introd. yet. = TRICOCCA, 
var. tricocca Makino. 

TRICOCCA (J. Sugimoto, New Keys to Woody Pits. Jap., p. 277. 1972) - 
flowers in threes. Sugimoto does not indicate whether this cultivar is 
based on var. tricocca Makino. If TRICOCCA was intended as a 
cultivar name, it is illegitimate, since it is in Latin form. = f. tricocca 
(Makino) Hara, var. tricocca Makino. 

TWIGGY (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 70:1. 



78 



1981) - Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 1-81 by G. Eisenbeiss; orig. as a 
hybrid sdlg. 1964 by W. Kosar at the U.S. Nat'l Arb. and was named by 
him; NA 31352, PI 452266; compact, globose to broadly pyramidal, 
slow growing; lvs. elliptic to narrowly elliptic, keeled and strongly 
curved, prominent and raised crenations; female. Phyto Ecology, 
Ridgely, Maryland, cat. p. 3. summer-fall 1978, without descr. Ibid., 
cat. p. 4. fall 1979-sp. 1980 - dwarf, compact, twiggy appearance; new 
from Nat'l Arb. Mr. Ceserini's (Phyto Ecology) use of this name was 
unauthorized, and the name was published and released in two Phyto 
Ecology catalogs prior to the official USDA Notice of Release April 7, 
1981. 
TYKE (G. Eisenbeiss and T. Dudley, Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 72:6. 1982) - 
sdlg. sel. from PI 276082, 1961 as /. crenata subsp. radicans; prostrate, 
dwarf, compact, good color, male; Holly Soc. Amer. Reg. No. 3-82 by 
D. Bradshaw and L. Schmid, Clemson University, Clemson, South 
Carolina. This is a cv. of/, crenata var. paludosa. 
var. typica Loesener (T. Loesener, Monog. Aquifol., Pt. 1., p. 200. 1901). 
Loesener's descr. of var. typica was limited to mainly fruit and pyrene 
characteristics and geographical origins. All of these characteristics and 
geographical ranges are well within the ranges of both cultivated 
expressions and wild occurring /. crenata var. crenata. Typical Ilex 
crenata var. crenata includes the /. crenata described from cultivation 
by Regel in 1887, /. elliptica Siebold, and I.fortunei Hort. A. Rehder, 
Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 17:161. 1908 - translated from German: 
lvs. elliptic, oval or ovate-egg shaped to lanceolate-elliptic or 
lanceolate-egg shape, 1.5 - 4.0 cm long; the forms cultivated 
in England, vars. major, latifolia, and elliptica, were from 
material sent to me by my friend W. J. Bean from Kew 
Arboretum are definitely the type form; the extensive number 
of Japanese examples [from the wild] I have seen scarcely 
differ from this [the type forma] in that their leaves are inverted 
egg shape at the point while the point of the leaf in the 
cultivated forms is elliptic. 
Rehder (1908) also recognized a var. nummularia [now called 
MARIESII]. Later, Rehder (Biblio. Trees & Shrubs, p. 402. 1949) 
recognized six bot.formae of/, crenata but still only one variety, var. 
nummularia. Variety typica was simply noted by Rehder (1949) under 
the species heading of/, crenata and was not connected with the 
infraspecific elements of/, crenata. Since so many garden variations of 
/. crenata are now recognized, the broadly inclusive descr. by Loesener 
and Rehder of var. typica are of little value for identification and 
determination of cultivated elements. Nevertheless Loesener's var. 
typica, the typical expression, served botanical and nomenclatural 
purposes, since it clearly distinguished some character differences and 
geographical locations of/, crenata in the wild. According to current 



79 



botanical nomenclature var. typica Loesener = var. crenata. 

UPRIGHT (J. Dickerson & Assoc, Troy, Ohio, advert, in Amer. 

Nurseryman 120 (2):1 19. 1964 (about the liquidation of Grovatt's Holly 
Nurs., Burlington, New Jersey), without descr.). 

UPRIGHT (Millcreek Nurs., Newark, Delaware, cat. p. 8. 1963) - vertical 
form of CONVEXA. Illegitimate because of inadequate description and 
priority of UPRITE. 

UPRIGHT (Scott Farms Nurs., Sewell, New Jersey, cat. p. 4. fall 1990-sp. 
1991, without descr.). 

UPRIGHT CHEROKEE (Manor View Farm, Monkton. Maryland, cat. 
p. 12. 1983. without descr.). = CHEROKEE. 

UPRIGHT HETZI (Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, cat. sp. 1972, 
without descr.). Was intended to be different plant from HETZII, since 
HETZII is listed separately in the same catalog. 

UPRITE (D. Wyman, Arnoldia 20(7):46. 1960) - somewhat similar to 
var. latifolia\ subject to chlorosis. Appalachian Nurs., Waynesboro, 
Pennsylvania, cat. p. 15. sp. 1967 - larger, bulkier habit than most; lvs. 
very dark green; extremely hardy. 

VALERIA RANKIN (Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. p. 1 1. 
1967, without descr.). Upright, compact, rounded; lvs. dark green, 
slightly convex, curved, broadly elliptic to obovate, tips obtuse to 
rounded, bases cuneate; sel., named, introd. by Tom Dodd, Jr., Tom 
Dodd Nurs.. Semmes, Alabama. By adding a descr., the authors are the 
first to legitimately publish the name VALERIA RANKIN. 

(Variegated Group) Established to include names of variegated selections 
in /. crenata only. Although an artificial grouping, assembling all the 
names applied to variegated /. crenata is convenient for horticultural 
uses. Includes: ALBO-MARGINATA, ANGYO, ARGENTEA 
VARIEGATA, AUREA, AUREO-VARIEGATA, DAN'S GOLD, 
ELEGANS MACULATA, FULVO-MARGINATA. GOLDEN GEM, 
GOLDEN HELLER, GOLDEN QUEEN, GOLDEN 
VARIEGATED, LUTEO-VARIEGATA, MARGINATA, 
ROTUNDIFOLIA AUREA. MIDAS TOUCH, PALUDOSA of 
Clarendon, SNOWFLAKE, VARIEGATA of Bean, VARIEGATA of 
Lavallee, VARIEGATA of Tingle, VARIEGATA of Vilmorin, 
VARIEGATA GOLDEN of Wieman, and VARIEGATED 
MICROPHYLLA. 

var. variegata (G. Nicholson, Illus. Diet. Gardening 2:174. 1884) - lvs. 
blotched dull yellow (see fig. 271 in Nicholson. Idem, Kew Hand-List 
Trees and Shrubs, 1:61. 1894, without descr. Richard Smith, St. John's 
Nurs., Worcester, England, cat. p. 47. 1893, without descr. F. Pierson 
Nurs., Tarrytown-on-Hudson, New York, cat. p. 12. 1897 - lvs. blotched 
and variegated with dull yellow. W. Dallimore, Holly Yew & Box, 
p. 122. 1908 - golden variegated lvs. W. J. Bean, Trees & Shrubs 
Hardy Brit. Isles 1:646. 1914 - lvs. of same shape and size as the type 



but spotted or blotched yellow; lvs. sometimes completely yellow. 
Nicholson, Dallimore, and Pierson seem to have described a clone from 
cultivation, yet it cannot be confirmed whether all of them referred to 
the same clone. However, since Nicholson, Dallimore, and Bean 
worked in England and their publications were successive and relatively 
closely timed, it is possible that the three of them reported the same 
clone. = LUTEO-VARIEGATA. See LUTEO-VARIEGATA for full 
syn. 

f. \ariegata (A. Rehder, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 17:161. 1908, based on 
[var. variegata in] G. Nicholson, Kew Handlist, p. 61. 1894) - lvs. 
small, narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, pointed; gold and green flecked; 
in contrast with f. luteo-variegata, which is a mutation of var. typica, 
f. variegata is often a recurring mutation of f. longifolia. Idem, Biblio. 
Trees & Shrubs, p. 402. 1949 - reduced var. variegata Nicholson to syn. 
off. luteo-variegata (Regel) Rehder. In this change of opinion Rehder 
was possibly considering his f. luteo-variegata as a bot. forma that 
included numerous clones or cultivated varieties (cultivars), or he may 
have considered f. luteo-variegata and f. variegata as representing the 
same clone. T. Loesener, Mitt. Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 1919:16. 1919, as 
/. crenata variegata. Loesener (1919) recognized aureo -variegata and 
luteo-variegata and variegata as distinct and as Japanese cultivated 
forms. = LUTEO-VARIEGATA. See LUTEO-VARIEGATA for full 
syn. 

VARIEGATA (W.J. Bean, Trees & Shrubs Hardy Brit. Isles, 8th ed., 
2:441. 1973) - lvs. are of same shape and size as normal form but 
sometimes spotted, blotched yellow, or all yellow; AUREO- 
VARIEGATA as a syn. of VARIEGATA. Bean (1973) was the first to 
list VARIEGATA at the cultivar rank in /. crenata. In this ref. Bean did 
not list var. variegata as a syn. of VARIEGATA, but his description of 
VARIEGATA is identical to his previous descriptions of var. variegata 
(W.J. Bean, Trees & Shrubs Hardy Brit. Isles, 1st ed., 1:649. 1914 and 
idem, 7th ed., 1:134. 1950). VARIEGATA of Bean (1973) should be 
regarded, therefore, as the same clone as var. variegata Bean (1914). 
This description of VARIEGATA also fits var. luteo-variegata Regel. 
Since Regel' s name predates VARIEGATA of Bean, the name 
LUTEO-VARIEGATA at cultivar rank is considered the legitimate 
cultivar name instead of VARIEGATA. Considerable confusion exists 
in the literature regarding the names luteo-variegata, aureo -variegata, 
and variegata. In W. Goldring, Garden (London) 31:129. 1887, at least 
2 recognizable variegated clones are involved, and Loesener, Mitt. 
Deut. Dendr. Gesel. 1919:16. 1919, recognized 3 distinct forms: 
f. aureo-variegata Hort., f. luteo-variegata Regel, and f. variegata 
Hort., all from Japan. The reported synonymy among the three names is 
conflicting. Subsequent variegated mutations have been found, further 
confusing the situation. Descriptions are inadequate and authentic 



material is not available. Under these circumstances, the solution by 
Boom (Nederl. Dendr., p. 337. 1959), which states that AUREO- 
VARIEGATA and LUTEO-VARIEGATA are both acceptable cultivar 
names, has been regarded as the most reasonable, except that the name 
AUREO- VARIEGATA is illegitimate by priority of /. aquifolium 
AUREO-VARIEGATA. (Variegated Group). = ? LUTEO- 
VARIEGATA. See LUTEO-VARIEGATA AND AUREO- 
VARIEGATA for full syn. 

VARIEGATA (Hilliers & Sons, Winchester, England, cat. p. 53. 1949) - 
low spreading, lvs. blotched yellow. Hilliers', Man. Trees & Shrubs, 
p. 157. 1972 - lvs. suffused yellow in sp., becoming pale green; as syn. 
of AUREO-VARIEGATA. Although these two descriptions vary, they 
probably represent the same clone. = AUREO-VARIEGATA. 

VARIEGATA (A. Lavallee, Arb. Segrezianum, p. 44, 1877, without 
descr.) - as var. foliis variegatis. Possibly a different clone from all 
other VARIEGATA. (Variegated Group). Illegitimate, since the name 
/. aquifolium VARIEGATA has priority. 

VARIEGATA (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 11. fall 

1952-sp. 1953) - golden variegated type. Possibly a different clone from 
all other/, crenata VARIEGATA. (Variegated Group). Illegitimate, 
since the name /. aquifolium VARIEGATA has priority. 

VARIEGATA (Vilmorin Nurs., Paris, France, Primary Cat. p. 32. 1904, 
without descr.). Possibly a different clone from all other VARIEGATA. 
(Variegated Group). Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium 
VARIEGATA has priority. 

VARIEGATED GOLDEN (The John Wieman Holly, Sherwood, Oregon, 
cat. p. 3. 1965) - lvs. oblong with unusual gold tinge; male; hardy. 
Illegitimate, since both words in the name have been used in a previous 
name, GOLDEN VARIEGATED, of S.-y. Hu. 

VARIEGATED MICROPHYLLA (American Holly Products, Millville, 
New Jersey, cat. fall 1986-sp. 1987, without descr.). Lvs. small, elliptic, 
and variously spotted blotched and streaked yellow; sel. and named by 
American Holly Products some years ago. Illegitimate, since part of the 
name is in Latin form. = DAN'S GOLD, GOLDEN MICROPHYLLA. 

VASEYI (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 21. fall 1956-sp. 
1957) - broad at base, branches readily; lvs. medium convex; (Bennett 
Hybrid Group). S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1):64. 1957 - lvs. oblong- 
obovate, loosely arranged, more or less convex, apex rounded, base 
obtuse; clone of f. latifolia. Male. 

VIRIDIS (H. van de Laar, Jaarboek Proef station voor de Boomkwekerij, 
Boskoop, Netherlands, p. 243. 1968, without descr.). Illegitimate, since 
the name is in Latin form, and since the name /. glabra VIRIDIS has 
priority. 

(Watanabeana Group) Group name for pits. of/, crenata that have yellow 
fruit or are of yellow-fruited parentage. Includes BUTTERBALL, 



82 



FORTY-NINER, i.fructo-alba, GAYLE, HONEYCOMB, ? IVORY, 
IVORY HALL, IVORY TOWER, IVORY UPRIGHT, ? 
MARIGOLD GLITTERS, PRAECOX of Chugai Shokub., SIR 
ECHO of Cannon, SIRUMI-INTSUGE, STARGLOW, SUNSHINE, 
WATANABEANA, f. watanabeana, xanthocarpa, XANTHOCARPA, 
YELLOW BERRY of Cannon, YELLOW BERRY of Huttleston, 
YELLOW FRUIT of Clemson, YELLOWBERRY of Clemson, 
YELLOWBERRY of Univ. Wash. Arb. 

f. watanabeana Makino (T. Makino, Jour. Jap. Bot. 1(4): 12. 1917, as var. 
typica f. watanabeana) - lvs. coriaceous; fr. greenish-pale yellow 
("viridiflavescent"); native to Bizen Province, "Yataka-Yama," Japan; 
named for Toyodzi Watanabe [a noted Japanese botanist]. S.-y. Hu, 
Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1):49. 1957 - lvs. "papery" [?], oblong-elliptic, 
1"-1 1/4" long; native to southern Japan and Okinawa. Fruit color was 
not mentioned by Hu. Idem, Amer. Hort. Mag. 49(4):200. 1970 - fr. 
greenish yellow; introd. to U.S. late 1950's. E. Griffith and H. Hyland, 
USDA Pit. Inventory 164:45. 1966, as /. crenata - (fr. yellow) PI 
231948; pit. obtained by J. Creech from Kyushu Agr. Exp. Sta., 
Kurume Fukuoka, Japan 1956. PI 231948 was propagated and widely 
distributed from USDA Pit. Introd. Sta., Glenn Dale, Maryland. PI 
231948 is not identified as f. watanabeana in PI Inventories or in Glenn 
Dale distributions. Also not indicated in the PI Inventories is the fact 
that when PI 231948 was introduced its seed was also introduced as PI 
231948-S. Plants were grown at Glenn Dale from this seed and were 
also widely distributed from Glenn Dale. Probably all named selections 
of yellow-fruited /. crenata originating in U.S. are from seed or 
seedlings of PI 231948-S. The single female clone also represented by 
PI 231948 was propagated and distributed to the trade from the USDA 
Pit. Introd. Sta., Glenn Dale, Maryland. Propagations of this pit. were 
also grown at the National Arboretum and distributed as NA 10815. 
According to authors' correspondence with T. Tamura in 1969, 
Makino' s description was based on a plant that was from the garden of 
Chikushi Harada. Harada's pit. was originally coll. from the wild in the 
town of Uematsu-Cho, Nischikuma-Gum District, Hagano-Ken 
Prefecture, Japan, by his father Chushiro Harada. Since 1956, additional 
seed off. watanabeana has been brought into the U.S. from Kyushu 
Agr. Exp. Sta. In 1975, seed from cultivated material of "f.fructo- 
albcT was offered in the Seed Exchange List (1976), Aritaki Arb., 
Japan. 

WATANABEANA (J. Sugimoto, New Keys Woody Plants Japan, p. 277. 
1972) - yellow fr. Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 
(Watanabeana Group). 

WAYNE (E. Quillen, Virginia Nurs. Assoc. Newslet., p. 3. 1961) - 
resembles HELLERI but stronger growing; sdlg. sel. about 1955 or 
1960; named at Waynesboro Nurs., Waynesboro, Virginia; will not be 



83 



introd. before 1962. Robbins Nurs., Willard, North Carolina, cat. p. 5. 
1963-64, as WAYNESII - very low, fast spreading, same general habit 
as REPANDENS, but more dense and better dark green lvs. The pit. was 
provided to Robbins Nurs. by S. Thrasher, Greenbrier Farms Nurs., 
Norfolk, Virginia, about 1952. Tankard Nurs., Exmore, Virginia, cat. 
p. 10. 1969-70 - a special dwarf, low growing or spreading; similar to 
GLORY. Female. Information available about the origin, dates of 
introd., and descr. is confusing. 

WIER (Millcreek Nurs., Newark, Delaware, cat. p. 9. 1963, without 
adequate descr.) - upright. Multistemmed and upright, vigorous, well 
shaped; lvs. oval, generally less yellowing in winter than the lvs. of most 
/. crenata in New Jersey; sel. from a local gdn. by Millcreek Nurs. before 
1963. = WIER UPRIGHT. By providing an adequate descr., the authors 
are the first to legitimately publish this name. 

WIER UPRIGHT (J. Dickerson & Assoc, advert, of auction of Millcreek 
Landscape Div., Newark, Delaware, in Amer. Nurseryman 144(5):48. 
1976, without descr.). Illegitimate, since the name WIER has priority. = 
WIER. 

WIESMOOR SILBER New name. Dense, compact, wider than tall, not 
as vigorous as CONVEXA; lvs. convex, variegated with mottled gray- 
green and cream, sometimes completely cream; female; hardiness same 
as CONVEXA: Orig. as a mutation of CONVEXA; discov. 1975 in 
Martin Zimmer Nurs., Wiesmoor, West Germany. The authors are the 
first to publish this name. 

WIGHT'S COMPACT (C. Parkerson, Combined Proc. IntematT Pit. 
Prop. Soc. 80:484. 1980, as WIGHT'S COMP ACTUM, without descr.). 
D. Milbocker et al., Southern Nurs. Assoc. Res. Jour. 7(2):2, 3, 4. 1981, 
as WIGHT'S COMPACTA, without descr. Historyland Nurs., Montrose, 
Virginia, cat. p. 11. June 1, 1990-June 1, 1991, as COMPACTA 
WIGHT'S - smaller size and lvs. more rounded than BENNETT'S 
COMPACT. By correcting the orthography, the authors are the first to 
legitimately publish this name. 

WILDWOOD (E. Orton, Jr., Proc. 40th Meet. Holly Soc. Amer., p. 16. 
1966) - dense mound, low, spreading, similar to HELLERI but faster 
growing; male; Holly Soc. Amer. Pit. Reg. No. 1-66 by R. Marvin, 
Walterboro, South Carolina. Originated before late 1940's at Wildwood 
Nurs., Walterboro, South Carolina. 

WILEY B. GLASS (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 25:7. 1965, 

without descr.) - rec. by Rutgers — The State University, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey, from W. Frierson. 

WILLIAM JACKSON (E. Orton, Jr., Holly Soc. Amer. Let. 25:17. 1965, 
without descr.) - Rutgers — The State University, New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, rec. from W. Frierson. Tom Dodd Nurs., Semmes, Alabama, cat. 
p. 3. 1966-67, without descr. Orig. and named at Tom Dodd Nurs.; Tom 
Dodd pedigree No. TD 56-332; named for a Baptist missionary; compact, 



84 



horizontal branching; but branchlets not in distinct flat sprays as found in 
LOYCE NELSON and EDWIN DOZIER, faster growing than either; 
lvs. oval, small; male. By providing a descr., the authors are the first to 
legitimately publish this name. 

WILLOW (King Nurs., Greensboro, Pennsylvania, advert, in Amer. 
Nurseryman 113(4):43. 1970, without descr. = ? WILLOW LEAF. 

WILLOW LEAF (Tingle Nurs., Pittsville, Maryland, cat. p. 21. fall 1956- 
sp. 1957) - spreading; lvs. flat, light green; (Bennett Hybrid Group). 
S.-y. Hu, Nat'l Hort. Mag. 36(1 ):64. 1957 - lvs. oblanceolate, some 
slightly convex; sel. of/, crenata f. longifolia. Idem, Amer. Hort. Mag. 
49(4):201. 1970 - sel. of LONGIFOLIA. C. Tuley, Proc. 38th Meet. 
Holly Soc. Amer., p. 2. 1965 - lvs. elongate; male; (Bennett Hybrid 
Group). Not to be confused with /. cornuta WILLOW LEAF, a later 
homonym. = ? WILLOW. 

WINTER KING (Angelica Nurs., Mohnton, Pennsylvania, cat. p. 24. fall 
1968-sp. 1969) - spreading, resembles Taxus cuspidata; extremely 
hardy. Illegitimate, since the name /. aquifolium WINTER KING has 
priority. 

WINTERGREEN (Kalmia Farms Nurs., Clarksville, Maryland, cat. p. 10. 
fall 1969-sp. 1970) - lvs. large, dark green; extremely hardy. Narrow 
upright, gradually becoming pyramidal; sel. from 3,000 sdlg. for winter 
hardiness, named and introd. by C. Orndorff, Kalmia Farms Nurs., 
Clarksville, Maryland. 

WOOTTENI (Winn Nurs., Norfolk, Virginia, cat. p. 6. 1966-67, without 
descr.). Illegitimate, since the name is in Latin form. 

XANTHOCARPA (J. Ford, Finding List and Guide Secrest Arb., Ohio 
Agr. Res. Development Center, Special Circ. (Revised) 91:73. 1978, as 
xanthocarpa) - yellow berried, without further descr. Illegitimate, since 
the name is in Latin form. (Watanabeana Group). = ? XANTHOCARPA 
of Watnong. 

XANTHOCARPA (Watnong Nurs., Morris Plain, New Jersey, cat. p. 6. sp. 
1966) - free growing; yellow berried; sel. by Watnong from pits. rec. 
from USDA Pit. Introd. Sta., Glenn Dale, Maryland. Illegitimate, since 
the name is in Latin form. (Watanabeana Group). = ? XANTHOCARPA 
of Ford. 

YELLOW BERRY (Cannon Plants, Greenwood, Delaware, cat. sp. 1973, 
without descr.) - yellow fr.; N. Cannon of Cannon Plants selected it from 
sdlgs. rec. from USDA Pit. Introd. Sta., Glenn Dale, Maryland. The 
name SUNSHINE of the Park Seed Co. represents the same plant. The 
name YELLOW BERRY is illegitimate, since the name /. opaca 
YELLOW BERRY has priority. The next available name, although a 
later syn., is SUNSHINE, which was not erected by the originator but 
has his approval by virtue of correspondence with authors. 
(Watanabeana Group). = SUNSHINE, ? YELLOWBERRY of 
Clemson, ? YELLOW BERRY of Longwood, ? YELLOW FRUIT of 



85 



University of Washington, ? YELLOW FRUIT of Clemson. 

YELLOW BERRY (D. Huttleston, Plants Growing in Conservatories and 
Gdns. Longwood Gdns., Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, Oct. 1970, 
without descr.). Illegitimate, since the name /. opaca YELLOW 
BERRY has priority. (Watanabeana Group). = ? SUNSHINE, 
? YELLOWBERRY of Clemson, ? YELLOW BERRY of Cannon, 
? YELLOW FRUIT of Clemson, ? YELLOW FRUIT of University of 
Washington. 

YELLOW FRUIT (Anonymous, University of Washington Arb. Bull. 
29(4):96. 1966, without descr.) - rec. from U.S. National Arboretum in 
1959 as PI 231948, and NA 10815, an unnamed yellow fruited sel. of 
f. watanabeana. J. Floyd, Holly Evaluation at Horticultural Gdns., 
Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. 
Bui. 1051:17. 1974, as PI 231948. Illegitimate, since the descr. is 
inadequate. (Watanabeana Group). = ? SUNSHINE, 
? YELLOWBERRY of Clemson, ? YELLOW BERRY of Longwood 
and of Cannon, ? YELLOW FRUIT of Clemson. 

YELLOW LEAF (Foxborough Nurs., Street, Maryland, in Andersen Hort. 
Library's Source List p. 94. 1988-89, without descr.). 

YELLOWBERRY (J. Floyd Jr., Ornamental Pit. Coll. Hort. Gdn., 
Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, Miscel. Pub. 9:1973, 
without descr.). Illegitimate, since the name /. opaca YELLOW 
BERRY has priority. (Watanabeana Group). = ? SUNSHINE, 
? YELLOWBERRY of Clemson, YELLOW BERRY of Cannon, 
YELLOW BERRY of Longwood, YELLOW FRUIT of University of 
Washington. 

YUNNAN (Wister et al., Holly Soc. Amer. Bui. 6:42. 1953, without 
descr.). Introd. about 1947 by Styer's Nurs., Concordville, 
Pennsylvania, cat. p. 11. 1961 - slender, upright column, dense; twigs 
yellow tinged: lvs. large; grows well in heavy soil. Female. Sdlg. orig. 
about 1932; sel. and named by Styer's Nurs. 

YUNNANENSIS (Clarendon Gdns. Nurs., Pinehurst, North Carolina, cat. 
1957, without descr.). = ? YUNNAN, or possibly intended to be 
/. yunnanensis. 

ZWISCHENAHN (J. Bruns, Baumschulen, Bad Zwischenahn, West 
Germany, cat. p. 130. 1959-60) - broad, upright, compact, particularly 
adapted for a small ornamental hedge; lvs. small like those of BRUNS. 
Female. 

151 (Flowerwood Nurs., Mobil, Alabama, advert, in Amer. Nurseryman 
123(6):109. 1966, without descr.). = BULLATA NO. 151. 



86 



Appendix A. List of New Cultivar Names of/, crenata 

The names in this list have not been previously published and are 
published here for the first time with a description. 

ANGYO 

DAN'S GOLD 

DELAWARE DIAMOND 

DUNCAN 

FRIERSON 

GREEN CONE 

HUNT SELECTION 

LISA 

LONGBOY 

LUSTGARTEN 

LUTHER COPELAND 

MOUNT HALLA 

ROBBIN'S #2 

SCHWOEBEL'S UPRIGHT 

SNOWFLAKE 

SOFT TOUCH 

STARGLOW 

WEISMOOR SILBER 



87 



Appendix B. List of Newly Legitimized Cultivar Names of 
/. crenata 

The names in this list have been previously published as illegitimate 
names and are published here legitimately for the first time by adding a 
description and/or correcting the orthography of the name. 

BENNETT'S COMPACT 

CAROLINA UPRIGHT 

EDWIN DOZIER 

GOLDEN HELLER 

GREENPOINT 

GRIER 

HAYDEN 

HONEYCOMB 

HOWARD'S COMPACT 

LAUREL LAKE 

LOEB 

LOYCE NELSON 

MAGDA 

MOUNT AMAGI 

NOBLE UPRIGHT 

NORTH STAR 

PIEDMONT PYRAMIDAL 

ROBERT CULPEPPER 

SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACT 

SHOUL 

SKY PENCIL 

TEE DEE 

VALERIA RANKIN 

WIER 

WIGHT'S COMPACT 

WILLIAM JACKSON 



88 



Appendix C. List of Doubtful Cultivar Names of 
/. crenata 

All the names in this list are illegitimate and have never been published. 
These names were found on plant labels or were brought to our attention 
through conversations and correspondence. Some of the names were found 
in printed matter that does not qualify for valid publication according to 
specifications in "International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated 
Plants— 1980," article 37 (C. Brickell et al., Regnum Vegatabile 104:32. 
1980). The purpose of publishing these illegitimate and formerly invalid 
names is to prevent them from being legitimately applied to new and 
different plants. An equal sign (=) has been placed after a few names that 
have been equated as synonyms of legitimate, illegitimate, or other 
doubtful names. The legitimate names and synonyms, when known, are 
listed after the equal sign. Many of the names can be made legitimate if 
validly published with adequate descriptions and background information. 
Among the entries in the Alphabetical List of Documented Epithets are a 
few synonyms that do not have their own entries. These are appropriately 
placed here. We greatly welcome comments and additional information 
about any of the names in this appendix, particularly with regard to plant 
descriptions and background information and evidence of publication. 

ARBORESCENS 

AUTUMN GOLD 

BIG DADDY 

BUFFALO 

BULLATA #5, #6 

CANARY LEAF = HIGHLANDER VARIEGATED 

CANNON #7 = STARGLOW 

CHANDLER 

CLEMSON (A, B, & C selections) 

COMPACTA of deWilde = SCHWOEBEL'S COMPACT 

COMPACTA 1 

COMPACTA 2 

COMPACTA NANA = COMPACTA NANA #1 

CONVEXA MICROPHYLLUS = 7HETZII 

CONVEXA ROTUNDIFOLIA 

COPLEN'S SMALL LEAF 

COUNTRY COURT 

CRAZY QUILT 

DENSA = ? MENTOR DENSE 

DEWDROP 

DEWERTH = I. vomitoria DEWERTH 

DODD #2, #3, #4, #5, #7, #70, #140, #160, #180, #500, #800 

ELFIN of Cannon = DELAWARE DIAMOND, NYMPH 



89 



FAIRYLAND 

FOSTER SPREADING NO. 1 = FOSTER NO. 1, SPREADING FOSTER 

NO. 1 
FOSTER SPREADING NO. 2 = FOSTER NO. 2, SPREADING FOSTER 

NO. 2 
FORTUNE 

FRIERSON SPECIAL = FRIERSON 
FRIERSON YELLOWSTEM 
GABLE SDLG. = ? GABLE'S 
GALLE'S 

GOLDEN MICROPHYLLA = DAN'S GOLD 
GOLDENBERRY 
GOLDSTAUB 
GREEN GLORY = GLORY 
GREEN POINT 
HALLA = MOUNT HALLA 
HARMAN UPRIGHT = UPRIGHT of Harman 
HETZI SPORT 
HEXE 

HIGHLANDER VARIEGATED = CANARY LEAF 
HOWARDI = HOWARD'S COMPACT (Bennett Hybrid Group) 
JACKSON 

JOHN NASH = ? JOHN NOSAL 
LANCASTER YELLOW = GOLDEN HELLER 
LATIFOLIA MAJOR = ? MAJOR 
LONG ISLAND DWARF 
LUSTER = ? GREEN LUSTER 
MAGNOLIA 
MAJOR of Rowland 

MAJOR AUREA in B.K. Boom's herbarium, Leiden, Netherlands. 
MAJOR AUREA VARIEGATA 
MARIESII VARIEGATA 
MARY ALEXANDER 
MIST GOLD = ? /. aquifolium MISTGOLD 
MT. HALLA = MOUNT HALLA 
NO. RX-4 
NO. 400 

NORTHERN STAR = ? NORTH STAR 

NYMPH of Cannon = DELAWARE DIAMOND, ELFIN of Cannon 
PIEDMONT = PIEDMONT PYRAMIDAL 
PRIDE = ? PRIDE 18, ? PRIDE HYBRID 18 
PRIDE 64-1, 64-16, 64-18 
PRIDE 18 = ? PRIDE, ? PRIDE HYBRID 18 
PRIDE'S DWARF IMPROVED 
RED VELVET 



90 



REPANDENS SMALL LEAF 

ROTUNDIFOLIA VARIEGATA 

ROTUNDIFOLIA WEEPING 

SELENE (Bennett Hybrid Group) 

SHINY 

SPREADING FOSTER NO. 1 = FOSTER NO. 1, FOSTER SPREADING 

NO. 1 
SPREADING FOSTER NO. 2 = FOSTER NO. 2, FOSTER SPREADING 

NO. 2 
STOKESDALE 

SUSSEX NO. 1, NO. 2, NO. 3, NO. 5, NO. 12 
TENNYSON of Hohman 1936 = ? TENNYSON of Boulevard 
TOTEM POLE 

UPRIGHT of Harmon = ? HARMAN UPRIGHT 
UPRIGHT HELLERI 
VIRIDIS 

WELLERI = ? HELLERI 

WOODHAM NO. 1, NO. 2, NO. 3, NO. 4, NO. 5, NO. 6, NO. 7 
WYCKOFF#5,#6 
X-4 

YELLOW BEAM 

YELLOW HELLERI = GOLDEN HELLER 
YELLOW STEMS 
#1 = CONNERS 



91 



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